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Separation and analysis of water-soluble proteins (WSP) are important in understanding wheat grain proteome fundamentals. However, due to their high degree of heterogeneity and complexity in the compositions, separating WSP is generally difficult and relevant methodologies are not efficiently developed yet. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is one of the analytical methods currently used for protein separation and characterization. In the present study, a CE method is established for rapidly separating and characterizing WSP of wheat grains. The established method was tested in various applications including wheat variety and germplasm identification as well as protein synthesis and accumulation studies during different grain development stages subject to genotypic and environmental variations. As results, the characteristic CE patterns of a range of bread wheat cultivars and related species were readily identified. The synthesis and accumulation patterns of wheat WSP during developing grains as well as their stabilities in different environments were also investigated. The technical advancements present in this article appear to be useful for wheat cultivar and germplasm identification as well as genetics and breeding research.

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) seeds and determination by capillary electrophoresis. J. Agric. Food Chem.47: 4649–4652. Kreft I. Extraction of rutin from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) seeds and

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Vasas, G., Gáspár, A., Páger, Cs., Surányi, Gy., M-Hamvas, M., Máthé, Cs., Borbély, Gy. (2004) Analysis of cyanobacterial toxins (anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, microcystin-LR) by capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis 25 , 108

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Five species of Plantago genus, namely P. lanceolata, P. major, P. media, P. altissima and P. maritima were screened for iridoid content (CE-MEKC), total caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycoside (CPG) content and antioxidant activity (CUPRAC assay). The five species could be distinguished by TLC pattern analysis in a single run in a system commonly used for quality management of P. lanceolata leaves, as shown by cluster analysis of major bands; with the exception, that P. altissima and P. lanceolata did not show enough pattern difference to be fully separated. P. maritima was shown to have the highest antioxidant capacity (0.42 μmol ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE)/g DW), and the highest level of CPGs (4.29%). P. altissima was shown to be chemically indistinguishable from P. lanceolata with repsect to iridoid content (aucubin 0.55 ± 0.04%, 0.68 ± 0.23%, catalpol 0.66 ± 0.13% and 0.89 ± 0.22%, respectively), CPG content (2.40 ± 0.38% and 2.54 ± 0.56%, respectively) and antioxidant capacity (0.2206 ± 0.0290 and 0.2428 ± 0.0191 μmol AAEAC/g DW). The presented data show the potency of medicinal use of Hungarian wild populations of the studied five species, especially in the case of P. maritima, and that P. altissima can be a potential replacement of P. lanceolata in herbal mixtures.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: I. Baracskai, G. Balázs, L. Liu, W. Ma, M. Oszvald, M. Newberry, S. Tömösközi, L. Láng, Z. Bedő, and F. Békés

, Z. 2000. Study of the LMW glutenin composition of some old Hungarian wheat cultivars using capillary electrophoresis. Cereal Res. Commun. 28 :417–424. Bedõ Z. Study of the LMW

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Gergely Zachar, Tamás Jakó, István Vincze, Zsolt Wagner, Tamás Tábi, Eszter Bálint, Szilvia Mezey, Éva Szökő, and András Csillag

D-aspartate (D-Asp) modulates adult neural plasticity and embryonic brain development by promoting cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. Here, developmental changes of the excitatory amino acids (EAAs) L-Glu, L-Asp and D-Asp were determined during the first postembryonic days, a time window for early learning, in selected brain regions of domestic chickens after chiral separation and capillary electrophoresis. Extracellular concentration (ECC) of EAAs was measured in microdialysis samples from freely moving chicks. ECC of D-Asp (but not L-EAAs) decreased during the first week of age, with no considerable regional or learning-related variation. ECC of L-Asp and L-Glu (but not of D-Asp) were elevated in the mSt/Ac in response to a rewarding stimulus, suggesting importance of Asp-Glu co-release in synaptic plasticity of basal ganglia. Potassium-evoked release of D-Asp, with a protracted transient, was also demonstrated. D-Asp constitutes greater percentage of total aspartate in the extracellular space than in whole tissue extracts, thus the bulk of D-Asp detected in tissue appears in the extracellular space. Conversely, only a fraction of tissue L-EAAs can be detected in extracellular space. The lack of changes in tissue D-Asp following avoidance learning indicates a tonic, rather than phasic, mechanism in the neuromodulatory action of this amino acid.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: C. Máthé, G. Vasas, G. Borbély, F. Erdődi, D. Beyer, Andrea Kiss, G. Surányi, S. Gonda, Katalin Jámbrik, and Márta M-Hamvas

Vasas, G., Gáspár, A., Páger, C., Surányi, G., Máthé, C., M-Hamvas, M., Borbely, G. (2004) Analysis of cyanobacterials toxins (anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, microcystin-LR) by capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis 25 , 108

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, F. B. (2002) Separation of positional isomers of aromatic anions by capillary electrophoresis using quaternized porphyrazine ion in aqueous solution. J. Sep. Sci. 25 , 1–6. Erim F. B

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-a, cylindrospermopsin, microcystin-LR) by capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis 25 , 108–115. Borbély G. Analysis of cyanobacterial toxins (anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, microcystin-LR) by

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. Rawal M , Hoff E , Aas-Pedersen L , Haugum K , Lindstedt BA : Rapid multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis of Shigella spp . using multicolour capillary electrophoresis. J Microbiol Methods 83 , 279

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