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.95 a catalytic activity measured at 775 °C Based on the above considerations [ 4 ], we have tried to observe the thermal decomposition of surface carbonate species of MO-Sm 2 O 3 mixed

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the full oxidation of the palladium particles [ 21 ], the poisoning effect of the formed water and carbon dioxide [ 22 ], or the effect of formed carbonate species [ 23 ]. Nevertheless, some authors have succeeded to prepare a Pd/Al 2 O 3 catalyst

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. Mikulová , J , Rossignol , S J Barbier Jr. Duprez , D , Kappenstein , C . 2007 . Characterizations of platinum catalysts supported on Ce, Zr, Pr-oxides and formation of carbonate species in catalytic wet air oxidation of acetic acid . Catal Today

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2 at low temperatures, and carbonate species were transformed to stable formate species by hydrogenation which are then reduced to methoxy [ 37 ] and further hydrogenated to methanol. On the other hand, Fujitani et al. [ 38 ], who worked on the Pd

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activation with the help of CeO 2 or ZrO 2 promoters. The amount of oxygen vacancies on CeO 2 and/or ZrO 2 surfaces has been reported to be related to the extent of CO 2 activation by easily forming formate and carbonate species [ 12 , 13 ]. The

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Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis
Authors: Soipatta Soisuwan, Benjamas Netiworaruksa, Channarong Charoendechanukor, Tassanee Tubcharoen, Joongjai Panpranot, and Piyasan Praserthdam

, it can react with water and carbon dioxide in air to form hydroxide and carbonate species. The lanthanum oxide might degrade to LaO(OH) during the preparation of Co/La 2 O 3 catalyst and resulted in the formation of cobalt lanthanum compound. The

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higher temperature treatment could lead to more efficient removal of the carbonate species which can block the active sites on the surface of CP catalysts. It is generally accepted that the catalytic activity of gold is size dependent, being

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