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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Erika-Beáta Kerekes, Anita Vidács, Julianna Jenei Török, Csilla Gömöri, Tamás Petkovits, Muthusamy Chandrasekaran, Shine Kadaikunnan, Naiyf S. Alharbi, Csaba Vágvölgyi, and Judit Krisch

. ( 2013 ) Combined effect of N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan and oregano essential oil to extend shelf life and control Listeria monocytogenes in raw chicken meat fillets . LWT –Food Sci. Technol. 53 , 94 – 99 . 13

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Markus M. Heimesaat, Gül Karadas, André Fischer, Ulf B. Göbel, Thomas Alter, Stefan Bereswill, and Greta Gölz

Sporadic cases of gastroenteritis have been attributed to Arcobacter butzleri infection, but information about the underlying immunopathological mechanisms is scarce. We have recently shown that experimental A. butzleri infection induces intestinal, extraintestinal and systemic immune responses in gnotobiotic IL-10−/− mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the immunopathological role of Toll-like Receptor-4, the receptor for lipopolysaccharide and lipooligosaccharide of Gram-negative bacteria, during murine A. butzleri infection. To address this, gnotobiotic IL-10−/− mice lacking TLR-4 were generated by broadspectrum antibiotic treatment and perorally infected with two different A. butzleri strains isolated from a patient (CCUG 30485) or fresh chicken meat (C1), respectively. Bacteria of either strain stably colonized the ilea of mice irrespective of their genotype at days 6 and 16 postinfection. As compared to IL-10−/− control animals, TLR-4−/− IL-10−/− mice were protected from A. butzleri-induced ileal apoptosis, from ileal influx of adaptive immune cells including T lymphocytes, regulatory T-cells and B lymphocytes, and from increased ileal IFN secretion. Given that TLR-4-signaling is essential for A. butzleri-induced intestinal inflammation, we conclude that bacterial lipooligosaccharide or lipopolysaccharide compounds aggravate intestinal inflammation and may thus represent major virulence factors of Arcobacter. Future studies need to further unravel the molecular mechanisms of TLR-4-mediated A. butzleri-host interactions.

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Abstract

Campylobacter is the most common bacterial food-borne pathogen worldwide. Poultry and specifically chicken and raw chicken meat is the main source for human Campylobacter infection. Whilst being colonized by Campylobacter spp. chicken in contrast to human, do scarcely develop pathological lesions. The immune mechanisms controlling Campylobacter colonization and infection in chickens are still not clear. Previous studies and our investigations indicate that the ability to colonize the chicken varies significantly not only between Campylobacter strains but also depending on the original source of the infecting isolate.

The data provides circumstantial evidence that early immune mechanisms in the gut may play an important role in the fate of Campylobacter in the host.

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, Paulsen P , Szostak MP , Humphrey T , Hilbert F : Bacteriophages isolated from chicken meat and the horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes . Appl Environ Microbiol 81 , 4600 – 4606 ( 2015 ) 13

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, Johnston B , Curtiss R 3rd, Mellata M : Zoonotic potential of Escherichia coli isolates from retail chicken meat products and eggs . Appl Environ Microbiol 81 , 1177 – 1187 ( 2015 ) 96

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B.W. Wren L. Brondsted 2010 Effect of chicken meat environment on gene expression of Campylobacter jejuni and its relevance to survival in food

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Rogier Louwen, P. van Baarlen, A. H. M. van Vliet, A. van Belkum, J. P. Hays, and H. P. Endtz

L. De Zutter 2009 Correlation between genotypic diversity, lipo-oligosaccharide gene locus class variation, and caco-2 cell invasion potential of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from chicken meat and

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