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. Meron , Theodor , War Crimes Law Comes of Age. Essays (Oxford University Press 1998 ). Nier III , Charles Lewis , ‘ The Yugoslavian Civil War

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communist Constitution was adopted by the legislature. Almost at the same time in East Asia, Chinese Communist Party with Chinese people just finished two wars, Anti-Japan War and Civil War. Chinese Communist Party won these wars and established its

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7 of the Lebanese law of 11 January 1958 on ‘Increasing the penalties for sedition, civil war and interfaith struggle. 50 It is beyond the scope of this article to analyse the case law of the STL in detail. However, it is indispensable to

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-Milosevic Serbia initiated efforts towards international cooperation and European integration. Human rights were extensively violated in the civil wars of the former Socialist Yugoslavia during the 1990s, and these violations often had an ethnic dimension. The

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After the battle of Thapsus that took place on 6 April 46 Caesar kept delaying his return to Rome for a long while, until 25 July — he stopped to stay on Sardinia — and this cannot be attributed fully to implementing measures and actions necessary in Africa since they could have been carried out by his new proconsul, C. Sallustius Crispus too. The triumph held owing to the victory in Africa — in which they carried around representations of the death of M. Petreius, M. Porcius Cato and Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio Nasica — must have further grated on the nerves of the aristocracy of Rome, because it was meant to symbolise Caesar’s victory both over Iuba and the senate. It was after that that Cicero broke his silence and delivered Pro Marcello in the senate, which was both oratio suasoria and gratiarum actio for the pardon granted to Marcellus, by which Caesar wanted to assure the senate of his benevolence and wanted to show off his power by his autocratic gesture. Pro Ligario delivered in 46 has been considered a classical example of deprecatio by both the antique and modern literature, and in historical terms it is not a less noteworthy work since from the period following the civil war Pro Marcello, having been delivered in early autumn of 46 in the senate, is Cicero’s first oration made on the Forum, that is, before the general public, in which praising Caesar’s clementia he seemingly legitimised dictatorship. First, we describe the historical background of the oratio and the process of the proceedings (I.); then, we examine the issue if the proceedings against Ligarius can be considered a real criminal trial. (II.) After the analysis of the genre of the speech, deprecatio (III.) we analyse the appearance of Caesar’s clementia in Pro Ligario. (IV.) Finally, we focus on the means of style of irony, and highlight an interesting element of the Caesar-Cicero relation and how the orator voices his conviction that he considers the dictator’s power and clementia illegitimate. (V.)

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