The development of American medical education before the Civil War was studied. One hundred and forty-three first professors in American medical schools before the Civil War were selected, and records of their academic origins, places of birth, and study abroad were collected from various biographical sources. Based on the prosopographical analysis of personal data of first professors, the historical changes and the characteristics in American medical education are discussed.
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of civil war during recent disintegration of the former Yugoslavia on scientific
output, as measured by changes in numbers of articles published in peer-reviewed journals. The articles published in journals
indexed in the Science Citation Index (SCI) were retrieved for the former Yugoslav republics. According to the census of 1991, the republics" populations were
as follows: Serbia 9.7 million inhabitants, Croatia 4.7, Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) 4.3, Macedonia 2.0, Slovenia 1.9, and
Montenegro 0.6. The annual numbers of articles from each were determined from 1988 to 2000. This period includes three prewar
years, 5 years of civil war from 1991 to 1995, and the NATO military interventions in B&H (1995) and F.R. Yugoslavia (1999),
which includes Serbia and Montenegro. In the late 1980s, Serbia produced more than 900 scientific articles per year and was
well ahead, with twice as many publications as Slovenia. The number of publications from Croatia fell between that of Serbia
and Slovenia. In the prewar period, the remaining republics had a relatively small scientific presence. The outputs from B&H
decreased, from 50 articles in 1991, sharply during the war and continued to decrease. During the postwar period only 18 to
27 papers per year were published. In 1995, the output from Serbia dropped 33% in comparison to 1991. Slovenia produced more
publications that year while Croatia was stagnant, and 3 most productive states had a similar output. In 1998, Serbia produced
1543 publications, Slovenia 1116, Croatia 1103, Macedonia 100, B&H 25, and Montenegro 12. The number of articles from Serbia
dropped in 1999 and 2000 for 10.2% and 27.9%, respectively, in comparison to 1998. For the same two years, the number of publications
was increased in Croatia (37.3% and 12,5%), Slovenia (10.9% and 52.8%), Macedonia (5% and 6%) and Montenegro (75% and 66%).
The concentration of scientific research in well-established universities caused an uneven distribution of scientific output
among various republics. Thus, the annual output of scientific papers per 100,000 inhabitants in 1990 greatly varied in various
republics. In Montenegro it was 1.79, B&H 1.95, Macedonia 2,36, Serbia 11.92, Croatia 18.40 and Slovenia 29.63. In 2000, the
annual output per 100,000 inhabitants in these republics was 3.41, 0.61, 5.24, 11,34, 26.00 and 76.84, respectively. The scientific
production in B&H and in Serbia was affected not only by the devastated economy, damaged communications, and hardship of everyday
life during the war and postwar years, but because many scientists left the country, and the scientists in Serbia were isolated
from the international scientific community.
Authors:Miloš Jovanović, Marcus John, and Stefan Reschke
In this study we investigate the scientific output of Yugoslavia and its successor republics viz. Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia,
Bosnia & Herzegovina, Macedonia and Montenegro. Additionally, Kosovo was included as a separate entity, since it recently
declared its independence. The publications and cooperation between the republics are analyzed for the years from 1970 until
2007. In contrast to similar studies, we examine a larger time window and take into consideration not only the three big republics
(Serbia, Croatia, and Slovenia) but also include the smaller ones, namely Bosnia & Herzegovina, Macedonia and Montenegro.
For our analysis we introduce two new indicators: the normalized cooperation score (
), a measure of dominance within a weighted network. Furthermore, we develop and assess the reliability of various techniques
for visualizing our findings. We found that the civil wars had a severe impact on the inner-Yugoslav cooperation network.
Additionally it seems, as if with the ending of the conflicts a process of recovery started.
Scientific outputs from Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia, and the patterns of co-authorship between them and five western countries
and with each other have been determined from theScience Citation Index. They reflect accurately the political situation underlying the recent break-up of the former Yugoslavia, and long-term international
alliances and friendships, but also take account of geographical proximity, which assists scientific co-operation. There is
no evidence of changes in the ethnic composition of Serbian and Croatian scientists overall, as revealed by the names of their
researchers before and after the civil war. However some changes appear to have taken place in Serbia outwith Belgrade, which
are consistent with the reports of the expulsion of Croats living in Vojvodina.
Previous research may have failed to find a general relationship between war and techno-scientific activity due to the failure (a) to treat the various types of war separately and (b) to use yearly rather than generational time series. Hence, the present study examined 404 consecutive years in European civilization from 1500 to 1903. Measures of four distinct kinds of war were defined and a log-transformed measure of techno-scientific activity was derived from a factor analysis of six histories and chronologies. The techno-science measure was regressed on the war measures plus a set of control variables. Techno-scientific activity was found to be a negative function of balance-of-power and defensive wars fought within Europe. In contrast, imperial and civil wars exerted no influence.
Authors:Antonio Fernández-Cano, Manuel Torralbo, and Mónica Vallejo
of the Spanish CivilWar (1936–1939). All these factors account for the falling slope, indicating a clear state of involution. Three theses were submitted in 1937, one in 1938 and seven in 1939. These events lend support to the hypothesis that
monographs devoted to American CivilWar (1861–1865), if Russia organize relatively greater amount of scientific conferences on the poetry of Silver Age, etc. Meanwhile, the majority of international peer-reviewed scientific journals are not so much narrowed