Composites made from E-glass/epoxy or aramid/epoxy are frequently used in aircraft and aerospace industries. These materials are prone to suffer from the presence of delamination, which can reduce severely the performance of aircrafts and even threaten their safety. Since electric conductivity of these composites is rather small, they can propagate electromagnetic waves. Detection of delamination damage can then be monitored by using an electromagnetic penetrating radar scanner, which consists of emitting waves having the form of short time pulses that are centered on a given work frequency. While propagating, these waves undergo partial reflection when running into an obstacle or a material discontinuity. Habitually, the radar is moved at constant speed along a straight path and the reflected signal is processed as a radargram that gives the reflected energy as function of the two-way time and the antenna position.In this work, modeling of electromagnetic wave propagation in composites made from E-glass/epoxy was performed analytically. The electromagnetic wave reflection from a delamination defect was analyzed as function of key intervening factors which include the defect extent and depth, as well as the work frequency. Various simulations were performed and the obtained results have enabled to correlate the reflection pattern image features to the actual delamination defect characteristics which can provide quantification of delamination.
Authors:Kun Hong Hu, Yong Kui Cai, Guo Quan Shao, and Xian Lu Cui
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) and its relative composites have been vastly used as catalysts to remove S, O and N from organic substances [ 1 – 4 ]. The nature of the active sites in MoS 2 -based catalysts was the