This paper is concerned with the problem of the appearance and distribution of the traditional nomadic weapon — the composite bow — in Ancient Rus. The authors have summarised evidence on fifteen complexes with new finds of composite bows at the most ancient Russian sites. The preserved overlays of the bows enable us to reconstruct the technology of assembling bows of various types. The article also summarises evidence on the characteristic items of the equipment of eastern archers, which together with a composite bow constituted a single set: bowcases for keeping the bows and quivers. The results of the present studies have drawn the authors to the conclusion about the wide distribution of complex nomadic bows throughout Ancient Rus in the 10th century. The outmost concentrations of the finds have proved to be related with early towns and the culture of the rising Ancient-Russian elite — “druzhinas”. In the present study, the use of two types of bows in Rus — the “Hungarian” and the “Pechenegian” (“Turkic”) types — has been demonstrated. Among the Ancient-Russian finds, bows of the “Hungarian” type hold a prominent place. The most ancient finds are dated to the third quarter of the 10th century. The appearance of composite bows was part of the process of distribution of items of armament, horse-gear, costume and accessories connected with the nomads of Eastern Europe among the Ancient-Russian military subculture. Some of the finds come from rich funerary complexes which belonged to professional warriors of a high social status, who may have been participating in the war campaigns of Prince Svyatoslav in the Balkans and on the Danube.
Authors:Maria Cristina Caimotto and Federico Gaspari
Recognizing that disciplinary confines often represent serious hurdles for translation scholars, this article offers a reflection on the boundaries of the subarea of news translation within the discipline of translation studies, focusing on its links with research that employs corpus-aided techniques, in particular critical discourse analysis and corpusassisted discourse studies. Reviewing a number of relevant studies and research projects that use different types of corpora, the discussion explores some of the main difficulties inherent in analysing translated news texts, which are often heavily mediated and edited in various ways; the ensuing key challenges associated with conducting journalistic translation research are examined. The article calls for mutual recognition and cross-fertilization between disciplines that investigate translated news from different, usually complementary, perspectives. In particular, the study of ideology and bias in translated news benefits from composite approaches and multi-faceted research projects that combine methods drawn from different areas: we argue that open and inclusive approaches are vital to uncover new and important insights into news translation.
In this paper, the author examines the script forms and ornaments of five works by the Hungarian calligrapher, George Bocskay (†1575), which have so far eluded researchers’ attention. All are manuscript charters on parchment, issued in Vienna in the second half of the sixteenth century by Habsburg rulers (some in their capacity as kings of Hungary), and all are of extremely high quality, decorated with elaborate calligraphy. Justification for presenting them together derives from their similar format: they are not conventional, single folio charters, but were all produced in booklet form. Since these manuscripts were closely connected with George Bocskay’s time as an official at the Viennese Court, the paper provides an overview of the different stages of his career there, based primarily on recently unearthed archive sources. For thirty years Bocskay worked at – and was promoted through the ranks of – the Hungarian Court Chancellery, which was the official government body within the composite state of the Habsburg Monarchy with responsibility for issuing charters pertaining to the Kingdom of Hungary. Among the official documents issued here by the Habsburg rulers, in their capacity as kings of Hungary, the most important from an art historical aspect are the letters patent issued to members of the Hungarian nobility, which featured a miniature of the granted coat of arms and usually also calligraphic decoration. Based on the author’s latest research, several examples of such decoration can now be attributed to the calligrapher, whose activity even led to the creation of a calligraphic school within the Chancellery. This paper presents three previously unknown manuscripts, namely the letters patent issued to Márk Horváth-Stanchich (1558), János Pethő de Gerse (III) (1572), and János Liszthy (1573); the identity of the master who made the miniatures on the two latter documents is also suggested (Donat Hübschmann). Furthermore, the paper provides clarification of the reading of a Bocskay signature found on a letters patent (grant of barony) issued to Miklós Oláh (1558–60), already described in the literature as a work by the calligrapher. Also on the basis of relevant archive sources, the author goes on to opine that, in addition to his official positions at the Chancellery, Bocskay also served in another role within the Viennese Court, which can best be defined as “calligrapher to the ruler.” It was for such services that Ferdinand I of Habsburg, in his capacity as Hungarian king, also bestowed upon him the nominal title of royal courtier (in Latin: aulae regiae familiaris / aulicus). In the author’s opinion, the artist, as “calligrapher to the ruler,” was also given the commission to decorate two further important charters, also discussed in this paper, both ratifying royal marriages between Habsburg archduchesses and Italian noble houses. Issued in Vienna in 1565 by Emperor Maximilian II of Habsburg and Archdukes Ferdinand and Charles, one charter ratified the marriage between Archduchess Barbara and Alfonso II d’Este, while the other ratified the marriage between Archduchess Joanna and Francesco Medici.
The cathedral “Esztergom II”. The construction of the St. Adalbert’s Cathedral in the twelfth century with an Excurse: To the chronology of the Early Gothic in the middle of the Kingdom as witneßsed by the Cistercian Abbey of Kerc (Cǎrţa, Kerz, RO), Transylvania. Among at least 4 construction periods of the medieval Cathedral (not counting additional buildings) the second building cannot be dated by written sources and is only witnessed by its High Romanesque and Early Gothic stone sculpture. As in the late seventeenth and in the eighteenth century stone elements from the ruins of the Cistercian Abbey of Pilis were used as building material in Esztergom and later also medieval stone sculptures from the region (mainly from the provostry in Dömös) entered in the collection of the Esztergom Castle. The distinction among these related monuments has in recent times also determined our concept of reconstruction of the Esztergom Cathedral. This reconstruction can be based on a few authentic landscapes, on a series of surveys drawn by military engineers and a description of the ruins before their final demolition. The early book by J. B. Máthes (1827) also contains a detailed ground plan of the St. Adalbert Church – a survey drawing from the early eighteenth century with possible traces of an ideal reconstruction. In recent times more efforts were spent to hypotheses concerning the building I of St. Adalbert’s than to the second construction, the ruins of which were still standing by the middle of the eighteenth century. It was a basilical building originally with an apse (rebuilt as a polygonal choir in the fourteenth century) between two towers in the East. The levels of the oriental part of the church are well documented: as the canons’ choir in the 3 east bays of the nave was elevated by 2 steps over the aisles, the choir square with the main apse was higher than the chorus minor. As the altar of the Virgin Mary in front of the choir was dedicated in 1156, the eastern parts of the building together with several parts of the nave can be dated about this time. The sculptures belonging to this building are classicizing (Corinthian and composite) capitals, partly with figurative elements, going back to figurative capitals from Dömös and related to classicizing details from the construction of the first half of the twelfth century of the royal priory in Óbuda. It seems that the capitals have belonged to a construction both with composed piers and with columns – perhaps in a form of alternation. The nave was not vaulted until the fourteenth century, but vaulting in choir and also in the aisles seems probable. The western part of the nave was built with cross-shaped piers observed by an eighteenth century witness of the ruins. Capitals with acanthus leaves and also with elements of chapiteaux à crochet appear as typical elements of this style also present in the inferior room of the annex to the donjon of the royal Palace, which was built presumably in the 1180’s. The role of North-Italian (magistri campionesi and also Antelami) models in the transmission of stylistic elements of French Early Gothic mixed with Italian traditions has received a strong accent mainly in the art-historical literature of the last decades. The author indicates a very strong analogy of this orientation in Esztergom with the late twelfth century reconstruction of the Salzburg Cathedral of Archbishop Konrad III, the crypt of which was dedicated in 1219. The use of local red marbles – together with the polychromy of different stones – on a series of decorative works following the models of the Salzburg Cathedral in the first half of the thirteenth century is comparable to Esztergom. Recent research – supported both by analysis of sources, technical observations and also geological investigation – have proved that large surfaces of the Esztergom Cathedral were covered with red limestone plates, for obtaining a noble effect. The supposed chronology of Esztergom can be supported by a new chronology of the Transylvanian Cistercian Abbey of Kerc, where the earliest parts of the building seem to correspond to models in Esztergom and Pilisszentkereszt about the hypothetical foundation year 1202. The relationship of this workshop to the central region of the country found its continuation about 1220 as on Kerc monastery appear influences of later works of the same circle (Óbuda, royal palace, cathedral Kalocsa II) and elements of the South German Early Gothic (Magdeburg, Walkenried, Maulbronn) as well. The parish church in Szászsebes (Mühlbach, Sebeş, RO) can be considered as a parallel to Kerc Abbey. Among local followers of Kerc, in Brassó (St. Barthelemys’ Kronstadt, Braş ov, RO), and Halmágy (Holmwegen, Halmăgiu, RO) can be identified decorative and also figurative forms originating from Salzburg, maybe through the intermediary of Kalocsa. It seems, that up to the first third of the thirteenth century the model of Kerc is still valid for provincialized followers as Prázsmár (Tartlau, Prejmer, RO) and Szék (Sic, RO). The latest phase of its influence shows a modernisation following the cathedral of Gyulafehérvár (Weiβenburg, Karlsstadt, Alba Iulia, RO).
B ateson , Gregory 1958 Naven. A Survey of the Problems Suggested by a Composite Picture of the Culture of a New Guinea Tribe Drawn from Three Points of View . Stanford : Stanford University Press .
Details of Composite Bows from Ancient Rus. ActaArchHung 62, 229–244.
E. Nagy K.–Bíró Á.–Bollók Á.–Költő L.–Langó P.–Türk A. A. 2010a Bizánci selyemruha töredéke egy fonyódi 10. századi sírból. Újabb adatok a Kárpát-medence 10
specification. 4.2.3 Relational specification Explicitation by relational specification, finally, results in semantically relevant shifts occurring on the syntagmatic plane, “where two or more [component] structures [...] combine to form a composite structure of
by a she-goat Composite labels like pullus passer (Pl. Cas . 134), digitum pollicem (Cato Agr. 19. 2), lapides silices (Cato Agr. 18. 3), ventus auster (Cato orat . 1, frag. 8) clearly illustrate the particularizing function of the