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The geologic units presently occurring to the south of the Pannonian Basin are fragments of Eurasia in the east (Moesian Plate), of Gondwana in the southwest (northern part of Adria), terranes docked to them prior to the Permian, as well as relics of oceanic lithosphere that was located between them. Since the Permian these units gradually drifted northward in a steady approach and finally collided, closing the Vardar Ocean, as well as the oceanic realms between them.

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Central European Geology
Authors: Arnold Gucsik, Tasuku Okumura, Hirotsugu Nishido, Ildikó Gyollai, Kiyotaka Ninagawa, Natalie Deseta, and Péter Rózsa

. Gorton , N.T. , G. Walker , S.D. Burley 1997 : Experimental analysis of the composite blue cathodoluminescence emission in quartz . – Journal of Luminescence , 72–74 , pp. 669 – 671

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E. Pál-Molnár F. Koller 2009 Two main types of Variscan granitoids in the Tisia Composite Terrane (Hungary) Mitteilungen

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Abstract

The Mid-Hungarian Zone is a WSW-ENE trending composite structural unit in the basement of the Pannonian Basin that is made up of displaced crustal fragments (terranes) of South Alpine and Dinaridic origin. In the early stage of the Alpine evolution these fragments were located in various sectors of the NW Neotethys region, representing different paleogeographic settings from passive margin through continental slope to oceanic basement. Middle to Late Jurassic closure of the Neotethys led to the development of a suture zone made up of subduction-related complexes that can be followed all along the strike of the Dinarides. During the Cretaceous compressional stages, nappe stacks were formed from the accretionary complex and the fragments of the previously disrupted passive margin. Eastward extrusion (escape) of the ALCAPA Mega-unit during the Oligocene to Early Miocene led to large-scale displacement of fragments of this nappe stack, transporting them to their present-day position, and resulted in dispersal of the northwestern segment of the suture zone. The paper summarizes the basic characteristics of the dislocated blocks, evaluates their relationships and determines their original setting.

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Acta Geologica Hungarica
Authors: János Haas, Ágnes Görög, Sándor Kovács, Péter Ozsvárt, Ilona Matyók, and Pál Pelikán

The basement of the Pannonian Basin is made up of tectonostratigraphic terranes of varying origin. They gradually amalgamated to form the large Alcapa and Tisza-Dacia composite terranes that were juxtaposed during the Tertiary. In North Hungary, in the basement of the Tertiary volcanic complex of the Mátra Mts and in the western part of the Bükk Mts, remnants of a Jurassic accretionary wedge were encountered. Ore exploration boreholes encountered several hundred-meter thick carbonate and siliceous shale-radiolarite successions in the basement of the Mátra Mts (Darnó Complex). Based on detailed studies of Core Recsk-109, the carbonate succession consists predominantly of grainstone with packstone-wackestone intercalations. Peloidal bioclastic grainstone is the most common texture type but sand-sized intraclasts and oncoid and ooid grains also occur locally. The most spectacular feature is the large amount of coarse to medium sand-sized fragments of calcified cyanobacteria ("Porostromata"). Platform-derived foraminifera and fragments of crinoids are also common. Gravity flows transported the carbonate detritus to the site of deposition at the lower foreslope and proximal toe-of-slope. Based on foraminifera the succession is Aalenian? or Early Bajocian in age.  In the southern part of the Bükk Mts fine-grained, graded oolitic, peloidal grainstone with shale and radiolarite interlayers occur in surface exposures and cores (Bükkzsérc Limestone Formation). These deposits were formed via turbidity currents in a basin relatively far from the carbonate producing platforms. Based on foraminifera the age of the formation is Early Bajocian-Bathonian. Radiolarian faunas suggesting Late Bajocian-Early Bathonian and Early Bathonian-Early Callovian age respectively, were found in a silicified carbonate and radiolarite succession that occurs below the Bükkzsérc Limestone with a tectonic contact. In the wider region Middle to Late Jurassic carbonate platforms and reef facies are known only in the Dinarides, in the area of the Adriatic (Dinaridic) Carbonate Platform. Coeval platform-derived redeposited carbonates and intercalated pelagic basin deposits were reported from the slopes of the Adriatic platform and the periplatform basins of the Slovenian Trough and the Bosnian Flysch Zone. These data confirm the previously suggested paleogeographic connections between the Dinaridic units and the Darnó and Bükk units during the Jurassic

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-alawi 2001 Compatibility of repair mortars with concrete in hot-dry environment Cement and Concrete Composites 23 93 101

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Central European Geology
Authors: Attila Demény, Alexandra Németh, Zoltán Kern, György Czuppon, Mihály Molnár, Szabolcs Leél-Őssy, Mihály Óvári, and József Stieber

are correlated in the stalagmites and compared with meteorological data, and finally a composite isotope record is selected for further analyses. The Baradla Cave and the studied stalagmites The Baradla Cave is situated in

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Acta Geologica Hungarica
Authors: Réka Lukács, György Czuppon, Szabolcs Harangi, Csaba Szabó, Theodor Ntaflos, and Friedrich Koller

, composite flow P1, Gran Canaria. - Contria. Mineral. and Petr., 112, pp. 1-19. Mixing of rhyolite, trachyte and basalt magma erupted from a vertically and laterally zoned reservoir, composite flow P1, Gran Canaria

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. Szederkényi, T., 1996: Metamorphic formations and their correlation in the Hungarian part of Tisia Megaunit (Tisia Composite Terrane). - Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica, Szeged, 37, pp. 143-160. Metamorphic formations and their

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. Bowes, G. Rogers, C. M. Farrow, E. Jelinek 2000: Modelling diverse processes in the petrogenesis of a composite batholith: the Central Bohemian Pluton, Central European Hercynides. - Journal of Petrology, 41/4, pp. 513 - 542

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