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Heck reaction in biphasic media. Benhaddou et al. [ 16 ] reported the homogeneous kinetics of the PdCl 2 catalyzed arylation of pent-1-en-3-ol and but-3-en-2-ol. A pseudo-first order rate constant was reported with aryl iodide concentration

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persistent in aqueous solution [ 3 ]. It kills fish at concentrations as low as a few parts per trillion [ 4 ]. There are several methods to remove organophosphorous compounds from water. Chemical oxidation is one such method but it is expensive and

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wastes [ 1 – 3 ]. High nitrate concentrations in drinking water are related to many health threats such as blue baby syndrome and cancer [ 4 , 5 ]. Furthermore, the release of nitrate to water bodies can promote algal blooms [ 6 ]. For these reasons

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Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis
Authors: Luis Ernesto Sandoval-Díaz, Ericsson David Coy-Barrera, and Carlos Alexander Trujillo

, 14 ]. The resultant material is consequence of the reaction conditions, i.e., ionic strength, temperature, pH, and reactant concentration [ 13 – 15 ]. This mechanism is regarded to be ionic; whereas below pH 2 H + ions are thought to be a catalyst

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/H 2 O 2 1:1–5:1, solvent concentration (methanol) of 5–90 wt%, catalyst content of 0–5.0 wt%, reaction time of 5–300 min and the intensity of stirring 0–500 rpm. In order to calculate the mass balance for the syntheses performed, the post

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variety of rock and soil minerals in oxidation states of two and three. It has been proven that at low levels, iron is an essential element in the diet while at higher concentrations, it is toxic. A variety of sensitive analytical methods can be used for

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with a detection limit 1 × 10 −9 M min −1 for ONOO − fluxes by photon counting [ 2 ] and 1 × 10 −11 M for ONOO − concentration by applying a membrane sampler [ 3 ]. Luminol is endosomal membrane permeable [ 4 ] and its initial oxidation step

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mL gastight syringe and the solution was stirred at 1,200 rpm. The initial concentrations of NaBH 4 , HPO 4 2− or PAA and cobalt(II) chloride were 150, 4.2 and 1.4 mM, in order. A molar ratio of NaBH 4 to cobalt(II) greater than 100 was used to

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Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis
Authors: Cristina Benincá, Patrício Peralta-Zamora, Ronaldo Cardoso Camargo, Célia Regina Granhen Tavares, Everton Fernando Zanoelo, and Luciana Igarashi-Mafra

experimentally the kinetics of a synthetic effluent by Fenton and photo-Fenton processes at optimal operating conditions in terms of H 2 O 2 and Fe 2+ concentration. A 2 2 factorial design of experiments was proposed to define the initial concentration of

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of initial mole ratios of alcohol to phthalic anhydride, b = c 0 ALC / c 0 PHT , equal to 3:1, 5:1, 10:1. The effect of temperature on the reaction rate was determined at b = 5:1, in the range of temperatures 413–453 K. The concentration of

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