To investigate the nutritional characteristics of purple wheat, 41 kinds of nutrients were measured in seven purple wheat lines using one white wheat variety as control sample. Correlation analysis of nutrient contents was performed. Results show that the amounts of 40 kinds of nutrients in the purple wheat lines are higher than those of the control. For example, the amounts of sodium (Na) and manganese (Mn) in purple wheat are higher than the standards by 311.77–2017.65% and 548.15–733.33%, respectively; the contents of β + γ-vitamin E is higher than the standards by 300%; and zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K) are all higher than the control by 100%. Therefore, the purple wheat has obvious advantages in terms of the nutrient contents. Correlation analysis studies show that protein has significant positive correlations with Glu, Mo, Pro, Fe, Tyr and Ile. Anthocyanin has significant positive correlations with Mo and Glu, and significant negative correlations with free Trp and Ca. Carotenoid has significant positive correlations with His, Lys, Val, Leu, Arg, Gly and I, and significant negative correlations with Ca. This paper is a first report on comprehensive nutrients of several purple wheat lines. Our results suggest that purple wheat is rich in nutrients and there are many significant correlations among different nutrients. The valuable information is very useful in biofortification breeding and functional food development.
The quality of wheat-hemp composites prepared with different amounts of hemp flour (5, 10, 15 and 20%) was characterised by the mixolab rheological test. The present study is related to three defatted hemp flour types addition, K1 and K2 gained from seeds bred conventionally, and K3 in bio-planting regime. Wheat flour of good baking quality was provided by a Czech commercial mill. Besides the mixolab profiles, basic baking quality parameters were also determined. By analytical methods, protein content, Zeleny’s value and Falling Number were determined. Dough baking quality was tested with the help of three rheological apparatuses, namely farinograph, extensigraph and amylograph. Moreover, laboratory baking test was performed, and specific bread volume was calculated. Mixolab torque data was strongly affected by substitution level than hemp flour type. The most precise distinguishing of samples was observed during the mixing and starch retrogradation phases of the test. Correlation analysis confirmed proper relationships between mixolab and rheological parameters related both to protein properties (C1, C2, C1–C2 vs. farinograph and extensigraph ones) and starch or starch gel properties (C3, C4, C5 vs. amylograph ones). In the former case, the strongest relationship was found between C1 and the dough development time (−0.80, p < 99%), while in the latter between the amylase activity estimation (C3–C4) and the amylograph viscosity maximum (−0.87, p < 99%). Bread specific volume could be predicted by all five basic mixolab C’s. The best fitting correlation was found for C3 readings (starch gelatinization rate, r = 0.87, p < 99%), while links of C1 or C2 (maximum torque as gluten strength and protein weakening) were softer (r = 0.73 and 0.70, respectively, p < 99%).
The experimental material comprised three crosses, namely Cocorit 71 × A-9-30-1, HI 8062 × JNK-4W-128 and Raj 911 × DWL 5002, generated from six diverse parents. Twelve populations of each of these three crosses revealed that sufficient genetic variation was recorded among generations for all the traits in three crosses. The results of a correlation study demonstrated that the grain yield per plant was significantly and positively associated with peduncle area and flag leaf area in the cross Cocorit 71 × A-9-30-1. However, the spike area had poor correlation with grain yield. In the cross HI 8062 × JNK-4W-128, grain yield per plant was positively associated with peduncle area and spike area, whereas flag leaf area showed a positive but weak association with grain yield. In the cross Raj 911 × DWL 5002, grain yield per plant was positively associated with all three physiological traits studied, indicating that improvement in grain yield may be made by these traits in this material. Peduncle area appeared to be the most important trait in the present study because of its association with grain yield in all three crosses. Although flag leaf area and spike area showed a positive association with grain yield in all three crosses, their relative magnitudes and significance changed from one cross to the other. Correlation studies revealed that selection for peduncle area would lead to high yield in durum wheat. However, due consideration should also be given to flag leaf area and spike area during the selection of plants for further tangible advances in grain yield in durum owing to their positive association with grain yield.
High molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits and baking quality-related traits were studied in 50 Indian wheat landraces. Scoring of germplasm based on electrophoresis patterns using the Payne method showed that the quality scores varied from 4 to 8. Based on this scoring, 13 cultivars were ranked as superior. Cluster analysis based on electrophoresis patterns and Jaccard similarity criteria divided the cultivars into five groups, with 13 cultivars in the first cluster. There was no similarity between the grouping pattern based on HMW glutenin sub-units and quality-related traits. In the present study, the quality of the flour of six wheat varieties was weak, so these varieties were only suitable for biscuit making. The flour of 31 wheat varieties showed medium strength. The remaining 13 wheat varieties had strong flour. Considering the great variation observed for quality-related traits and HMW glutenin sub-units, it can be concluded that these cultivars are potential sources of desirable quality traits for use in bread wheat breeding programmes to improve bread-making quality.
Authors:Kamil Haliloglu, Ali Ozturk, Metin Tosun, and Sancar Bulut
Twenty-five winter wheat cultivars (cv.s) were evaluated for their ability to produce embryogenic callus, eventually plantlets, as well as the agronomic performance in the field to determine the relationship between tissue culture and agronomic traits. There were significant genotype effects on callus formation, callus fresh and dry weight, callus moisture content, embryogenic calli formation and the frequency of plant regeneration. Relationship between tissue culture and agronomic traits was examined by correlation and regression analysis. Important relationships between the two traits were found such as the frequency of plantlets regeneration from immature embryos could be estimated from spike number per m
. Such relationships may be due to the fact that plantlets regeneration might be controlled by the genetic system controlling the incidence of spike number per m
or partial linkage with it. This result suggests that it is possible to screen genotypes with good tissue culture traits directly at the agronomic trait level, a practice rather simple and straightforward.
Authors:E. Ivanišová, M. Ondrejovič, D. Chmelová, T. Maliar, M. Havrlentová, and L’. Rückschloss
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of four milling fractions of purple wheat breeding lines grown in 2010. Radical scavenging activity by the DPPH assay and reducing power of the samples were determined, as well as the content of polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins. The obtained results showed that flour fractions (break and reduction flour) had lower total antioxidant potential than bran fractions (fine and coarse bran). A significant correlation was obtained between the DPPH and reducing power assay (R2 = 0.87). The correlation between antioxidant assays and polyphenol, flavonoid and anthocyanin content suggested that polyphenols in cereals are responsible for the antioxidant activities.
Swertia L. with about 150 species worldwide is one of the most divers genera of the Gentianaceae. Based on previous work for morphological phylogeny of the family, Swertia can be considered as a primitive genus of the temperate subtribe Gentianinae Gilg. To explain diversity in Swertia, species number per 100,000 sq. km were calculated and mapped for important parts of the generic range, evolutionary advancement indices (AI) for 118 species were determined (based on morphological traits) and a correlation analysis, with ecological and phenotypical variables, was undertaken. Diversity centres are East Himalaja plus Chinese provinces of Yunnan and Sichuan (with diversity maximum of 16.3 in Nepal) and the East African Rift Valley Region (with highest diversity in Malawi, 6.8). Advancement indices of species range from 0.12 to 0.78 within 0 and 1, theoretically possible. The nine most primitive species (AI<0.25) are distributed in Asia and Africa, above an altitude of at least 2,500 m while in North America most species are highly advanced (AI≯ 0.65). Correlation analysis with ecological factors such as latitude, altitude, habitat type suggests that the genus originated in the moist montane or alpine zones.
Authors:S. Popov, M. Miličić, I. Diti, O. Marko, D. Sommaggio, Z. Markov, and A. Vujić
Spatial and temporal differences in landscape patterns are of considerable interest for understanding ecological processes. In this study, we assessed habitat quality by using the Syrph The Net database and data on decreasing species richness over a 25-year period for the two largest phytophagous hoverfly genera (Merodon and Cheilosia). Furthermore, within this time frame, we explored congruence between ecological responses (species richness and Biodiversity Maintenance Function for these two genera) and landscape structural changes through correlation analysis. Our results indicate that landscapes have experienced changes in aggregation, isolation/connectivity and landscape diversity, with these parameters being significantly correlated with Cheilosia species richness loss and habitat quality. We conclude that the genus Cheilosia is a good bioindicator that can highlight not only the current quality of an area but also temporal changes in landscape patterns.