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in 1978, China has been gradually emerging – quantitatively and qualitatively – as a completely new, difficult to define component of the world economy ( Godement 2016; Hübner 2016; Kolodko 2018 ). The ‘new’ China somehow automatically disrupted the

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soon as possible . Harvard Business Review , 2014, Summer. SHARP (Safety & Health Assessment & Research for Prevention) ( 2011 ). Workplace Bullying and Disruptive Behavior: What Everyone Needs to Know . Report

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. ( 2018 ): Disruptive Forces: Antitrust in 2018 . Credit Suisse 2018 Washington Perspectives Conference, January 10, 2018 , https://www.wsgr.com/publications/PDFSearch/Jon-Jacobson-Credit-Suisse-Disruptive-Forces-Antitrust-2018.pdf

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, and they may become temporarily unemployed. Thus, even though the economy, in general, could profit in the long run from such a deflationary collapse, the indebted individuals prefer to stay on the safe path with no apparent disruptions. They oppose

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spreading of the contagion, and the disruption of the transnational supply and production chains ( Kolodko 2020b ). In the World Economic Outlook (WEO) for spring IMF forecasted for China and India a GDP growth of 1.2 and 1.9%, respectively, in 2020 and an

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This paper develops two stylised models of the transition economy that challenge, to some extent, the conventional approach to policy reforms. In the first model, the absence of market-oriented institutions is responsible for the occurrence of a non-cooperative equilibrium, where the amount of public services provided by the state is too low, which, in turn, adversely affects the global performance of the economy. In the second model, a benevolent government will choose a taxation level that pushes too many firms out of the market; hence global supply falls below its optimal level. In both models, disruptions specific to transitional systems lead to abnormal responses to standard fiscal policy.

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Business activities considerably affect the fate and survival of natural ecosystems as well as the life conditions of present and future generations. In the light of Hans Jonas' theory of responsibility we can state that business has a one-way, non-reciprocal duty caring for the beings affected by its functioning. To become a fully ethical enterprise, business is to be carried out in sustainable, pro-social and future enhancing ways. Doing ethical business is not a luxury of advanced societies. It is a requirement for modern business to survive in a world of large-scale ecological disruption and social disintegration.

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Data from 135 countries covering five decades suggest that creditless recoveries, in which the stock of real credit does not return to the pre-crisis level for three years after the GDP trough, are not rare and are characterised by remarkable real GDP growth rates: 4.7 percent per year in middle-income countries and 3.2 percent per year in high-income countries. However, the implications of these historical episodes for the current European situation are limited, for two main reasons. First, creditless recoveries are much less common in high-income countries than in low-income countries which are financially undeveloped. European economies heavily depend on bank loans and research suggests that loan supply played a major role in the recent weak credit performance of Europe. There are reasons to believe that, despite various efforts, normal lending has not yet been restored. Limited loan supply could be disruptive for the European economic recovery and there has been only a minor substitution of bank loans with debt securities. Second, creditless recoveries were associated with significant real exchange rate depreciation, which has hardly occurred so far in most of Europe. This stylised fact suggests that it might be difficult to re-establish economic growth in the absence of sizeable real exchange rate depreciation, if credit growth does not return.

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. ( 2016 ): Digital Disruption – How FinTech is Forcing Banking to a Tipping Point . City GPS HM Government ( 2017 ): Customer Journey Mapping - A Guide for Practitioners . http

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): Commercializing a Disruptive Technology Based upon University IP through Open Innovation: A Case Study of Cambridge Display Technology. International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management , 4(3): 225

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