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, P., Capece , A. & Jespersen , L. (2006): Taxonomic and ecological diversity of food and beverage yeasts.-in: Querol , A. & Fleet , G.H. (Eds) The yeast handbook: Yeasts in food and beverages . Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 13

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126 132 Cardenas , E. & Tiedje , J.M. (2008): New tools for discovering and characterizing microbial diversity. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol ., 19 , 544

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Mining and processing activities in the former mining Middle Spis area caused serious environmental problems. The aim of the study is to determine the content of heavy metals (Cu, As, Pb, Fe, Hg) in water and describe the flora diversity along the Rudnansky creek, which flows through the area. Chemical (pH) and physical (water conductivity, oxygen saturation) water properties were also evaluated. High values of copper and mercury were determined at the localities close to the tailing pond and mercury processing plant. Presence of plant species resistant to heavy metals, such as Calamagrostis epigejos, Arctium lappa, Cirsium rivulare, Geranium palustre, indicates toxic element pollution.

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The chemical and microbiological changes during spontaneous <italic>budu</italic> fermentation were elucidated on monthly basis (1–12 months). A significant increase (P<0.05) in pH, acidity, soluble protein, total protein, and moisture content was observed during <italic>budu</italic> fermentation, except for the fat content. The total microbial load decreased gradually from the initial of 6.13±0.01 to 3.45±0.13 log CFU g−1 after 12 months of fermentation. Overall, 150 isolates were identified, with a majority of bacteria (77%), followed by yeasts (12%) and 11% of unconfirmed species. Micrococcus luteus was the predominant strain that initiated the fermentation before it was replaced by Staphylococcus arlettae that exists throughout the fermentation. This study confirmed that lactic acid bacteria and yeasts often coexist with other microorganisms, even though a microbiological succession usually takes place both between and within species, which shaped the chemical and sensory characteristics of the final product. In addition, some of the isolates could be potentially valuable as starter cultures for further improved and controllable <italic>budu</italic> fermentation.

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International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Authors: Ahmed S. Al-Zuhairi, Alaa H. Altimimy, Ali T. Al-Aqbi, and Hazim M. Al-Kargole

many chains in the network and the longest chain length is small fraction of the total nodes (diversity is about one) this network is of poor efficiency and cannot be used to any communication tasks, while if a diversity near zero indicates that more

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] Zhang W. , Letaief K. ( 2008 ), Cooperative spectrum sensing with transmit and relay diversity in cognitive radio networks . IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications , 7 ( 12 ), 4761 – 4766

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design diversity . Proceedings of the IEEE , 74 ( 5 ), 629 – 638 . [5] Monkman S. , Schagaev I. ( 2013 ). Redundancy + Repeatability

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G. Kovács 2004 Comparison of RNA- and DNA-based diversity investigations in rhizoplane bacteriology J. Microbiological Methods 56 365

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), Intercultural (cross-culture) marketing: The answer to socio-cultural diversity . Marketing & Management , 34 , 52 – 56 (ISSN 1219-0349) [14] Deal T

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proposed by the population involved ( Fig. 1 ). Fig.1. Crossover operator Mutation = is another operator that ensures the diversity of populations from one generation to another. In this step, one or more of the values of the genes in the chromosomes

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