Following the success of Eugène Sue's serial novel Les Mystères de Paris a pattern emerges in the era's literary market. Sue's works provide a narrative, politico-cultural and economic model with a worldwide impact. These works created a new way of presenting a city, while also developing a type of narrative that sometimes precedes the actual urbanization of an area, thus offering ready-made panels when talking about often unfinished processes. Several Hungarian works following the same literary model were published that used the panels introduced by Sue in relation to a city early in the process of urbanization and promote a distinctly national image of Budapest. The popularity of Sue's works helped the kindred Hungarian novels become successful projects. This piece of research attempts to identify the ways in which these transnational patterns became adapted and domesticated by the earliest Hungarian urban mysteries and helped the emergence of a specifically urban nationalist sentiment.
This article examines American cultural influences in Brazil, particularly in terms of translations published in Brazil. It proposes that the great majority of American books published occupied a conservative position in the Brazilian literary system, and in certain periods, such as the post-1964 military dictatorship, the US government financed the publication of American works translated into Portuguese in order to help to provide the right-wing military government with a cultural focus. However, the importation of American literature has been seen in very different ways: in the late 19th and early 20th centuries the cheapness of American culture and the global aims of the future superpower were already being criticized. For others, America meant democracy and an economic model to emulate. In the 1920s and 1930s the publisher, translator and writer of children's stories, Monteiro Lobato, saw the importation of American ideas and technology as a way of taking Brazil out of its backwardness, and expected translations of American works to counterbalance the dominant French trends. In the most repressive years of the military dictatorship, from the end of 1968 to the mid-seventies, the translation of Beat poetry acted as a form of protest.
The author deals with two interconnected features of contemporary Hungarian rural family life from a historical perspective based on fieldwork carried out in Varsány in the early 1970s and between 2000 and 2005. The first is the intertwining of the lives of successive generations of families in a period when other segments of Hungarian society were becoming more individualistic. This case puts into question whether economic models of the direction of the flow of goods between generations (linear, altruistic or exchange models) are applicable for this situation. The author suggests that Polányi’s ideas may be of help in understanding this phenomenon. The second is the balance of genders within families. Tatjana Thelen, who did fieldwork in another Hungarian village, Mesterszállás, pointed out a decline in the status of women. She holds the Hungarian policy of privatisation and reprivatisation responsible for it, which followed the great socio-economic and political change from socialism to capitalism in 1990. As a similar decrease in the status of women did not occur in Varsány, the author argues that other factors also should be taken into consideration for analysing such situations, like the role of commuting, education, and women’s share in landed property.