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Abstract  

In the present paper the development and application of a novel gastrin radioimmunoassay (RIA) are described. 125I-labeling of non-sulphated human gastrin-17 (nshG-17) was performed by the iodogen method and the mono-iodinated hormone, as RIA tracer, was separated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Serum gastrin levels were measured in response to intravenous application of isoproterenol, a non-selective beta and phenylephrine, a selective alpha-1 receptor agonist using a newly developed method specific for the C-terminal part of the hormone in rats. Isoproterenol at clinically relevant doses elicited a significant increase in serum gastrin concentration in a dose-dependent fashion, whereas phenylephrine was without effect.

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Summary  

In the present work, we investigated the immunological behavior of bothropstoxin-1, a K49 phospholipase from Bothrops jararacussu, and of ovalbumin before and after irradiation with 60Co g-rays. Isogenic mice were immunized with either native or irradiated proteins. The circulating antibodies were isotyped and titrated by ELISA. Results indicate that irradiated proteins were immunogenic and the antibodies elicited by them were able to recognize the native proteins in ELISA. Data also indicate that the irradiated protein induced higher titers of IgG2a and IgG2b, suggesting that Th1 cells were predominantly involved in the immune response. Structural modifications of the proteins were investigated by SDS-PAGE, mass spectrometry and size exclusion chromatography. According to our data, irradiation promoted structural modifications on both proteins, characterized by higher molecular weight forms (aggregates and oligomers). When analyzed by mass spectrometry, the irradiated bothropstoxin appeared in several oxidized forms. These results indicate that irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant modifications in their structures, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties of native form.

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Conductometric and calorimetric studies of the serially diluted and agitated solutions

On the combined anomalous effect of time and volume parameters

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: P. Belon, V. Elia, L. Elia, M. Montanino, E. Napoli, and M. Niccoli

Abstract  

We systematically analysed the experimental data related to the specific conductivities and heats in excess of several serially diluted and agitated solutions (SDA for short). For all of the analysed samples, we found that both the excess conductivity, χE (μS cm−1), and excess heat, Q mix E (J kg−1), varied with the age of the sample (up to 2 years of ageing). Furthermore, we found that after a certain period of ageing, small volume samples exhibited a much higher excess than large volume ones. The results we report in this paper are the product of a systematic study, during which we operated on known and constant volumes across the life of the samples. The incidence of volume on χE and Q mix E turned out to be overwhelming when compared with that of time. The temporal evolution of the smaller samples was found significantly higher than that of the larger volume ones. A careful numerical analysis of the results uncovered an extraordinary and unexpected correlation, of exponential kind, between the excess parameters and the volume of the solution in the container. As for the temporal evolution of these systems, we found that the measured excess heats and conductivity often reach a maximum. That led us to the conclusion that the temporal evolution of the physico-chemical parameters is not caused by the slow process of equilibrium attainment; on the contrary, these systems are far from equilibrium systems, dissipative structures, whose experimental behaviour is certainly due to the variation of the super-molecular structure of the solvent, water. The agitation phase during the preparation could be the trigger for the formation of dissipative structures and the emergence of the novel behaviour. We put forth a simple rationalizing hypothesis, based on the general idea of water as an auto-organizing system that, when elicited by even small perturbations, can enter a far from equilibrium state, sustained by the dissipation of the electromagnetic energy coming from the environment. (Dissipative Structures).

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pathovar designations. Mutant analysis showed that P. syringae requires the Hrp (type III protein secretion) system encoded by a 25-kb cluster of hrp and hrc genes in order to elicit the hypersensitive response in nonhosts or to be pathogenic in hosts

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the cluster bonding mode by eliciting the existence of stable units within the cluster structure [ 8 ]. For this purpose clusters formed by rare-gases, metallic and covalent elements have been considered and the number of studies on this subject is now

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Moscow (in Russian). 10. Hahn , MG Microbial elicitors and their receptors in plants . Annu Rev Phytopathol 1996 34 : 387 – 412 10.1146/annurev.phyto.34

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also lead to the loss of drug activity and elicit possible adverse reactions. Therefore, forced degradation studies are recognized as an important part of drug development to identify the likely degradation products, which can in turn help establish the

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Aqueous nanostructures in water induced by electromagnetic fields emitted by EDS

A conductometric study of fullerene and carbon nanotube EDS

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: V. Elia, L. A. Marrari, and E. Napoli

perturbations of various kinds (mechanical and electromagnetic), even when these are of small magnitude. These elicit the formation in the water of “dissipative structures” [ 18 , 19 ], that is to say ordered systems of water molecules (clusters, molecular

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deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT), which is reported to elicit anti-lung inflammation [ 4 ], anti-tumor [ 1 ], anti-proliferative, and anti-viral activities [ 5 ]. The distinct advantages of DPT as a therapeutic agent, as well as other active ingredients in A

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reserpine (0.096%) and ajmaline (0.092%) was recorded in callus [ 41 ]. Stimulation of reserpine production through elicitors (abscisic acid, salicylic acid and dimethyl sulphoxide) and precursor (tryptamine) treatment in the in vitro plant cultures of R

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