Authors:Sezer Okay, Rukiye Çetin, Fatih Karabulut, Cennet Doğan, Süheyla Sürücüoğlu, and Aslıhan Kurt Kızıldoğan
antigen from MTB protected the mice against TB [ 8 ]. Liu et al. [ 9 ] showed that the fusion of Mtb8.4 and HspX proteins from MTB elicited strong immune responses in mice.
Identification of the virulence factors playing role in the pathogenesis of
In this review synonymous definitions of reactive arthritis are discussed first. Major clinical symptoms, their infectious etiology and epidemiology define post-dysenteric and post-venereal forms of reactive arthritis. Classical (smear, culture, biochemistry, antigen detection) and molecular (DNA and RNA detections) techniques are used in the routine microbial diagnosis that is retrospective in the majority of cases. In the pathomechanism of this disorder, HLA-B27 antigen positivity of patients is a frequent risk factor. Molecular mimicry between microbial and self-antigens, abnormal antigen presentation leading to incomplete CD8+ T lymphocyte activation might contribute to the persistence of microbial antigens that elicit clinical symptoms. Treatment is rarely successful with antimicrobial chemotherapy.
Authors:Krisztina Buzás, Klára Megyeri, A. Miczák, Andrea Fekete, M. Degré, Yvette Mándi, and I. Rosztóczy
Cytokine production has been implicated in the pathogenic mechanisms of infections caused by the staphylococci, since these bacteria may act as strong cytokine inducers. To gain deeper insight into the Th1 immune response activated by these bacteria, we have analyzed the interferon (IFN), interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-18-inducing activities of different Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), S. epidermidis and S. saprophyticus strains in human monocytes and murine bone marrow macrophages. A large majority of the S. aureus strains elicited the simultaneous production of IL-12 p70 and IFN-a in the human monocytes, while the S. epidermidis and S. saprophyticus strains induced only a low level of production, if any, of these cytokines. Furthermore, a majority of the S. aureus strains induced significantly higher IL-12 p70 and IL-18 titers in the murine bone marrow macrophages than did the S. epidermidis and S. saprophyticus strains. As IL-12, IL-18 and IFN-a stimulate Th1 differentiation synergistically, we suggest that S. aureus strains bias the immune response toward a Th1 phenotype, whereas S. epidermidis and S. saprophyticus strains provide a weaker stimulus for the production of Th1-inducing cytokines, and accordingly possibly elicit a less extensive Th1-associated adaptive immunity.
Authors:Sanjeev K. Singh, M. B. Mandal, and R. Ravindran
peripheral blood vessels in the modulation of cardiorespiratory responses. In a separate series of work, it has been shown in our laboratory that i.a. injection of Mesobuthus tamulus (BT) venom elicits reflex cardiorespiratory changes, which last longer
). Increased LA levels would partially evoke subsequent anabolic factor release ( 22 , 24 , 32 ). Accumulating evidence has shown that BFR resistance exercise elicits an additive effect on LA ( 34 , 40 ) and both hormonal ( 31 , 34 ) and muscle activation
. The standard approach to localize the GPs is to apply high-frequency stimulation to the presumed GP areas to elicit atrioventricular blocks, but this method has low specificity and sensitivity, is invasive and time-consuming [ 75 ]. MIBG imaging has
Authors:B Raposa, R Pónusz, G Gerencsér, F Budán, Z Gyöngyi, A Tibold, D Hegyi, I Kiss, Á Koller, and T Varjas
azorubine, utilized alone, increased MAPK8 expression at remarkably low and high concentrations, the expression of the other two genes did not change. Thus, azorubine elicited a weaker apoptotic stimulus than tartrazine. Addition of a mixture of dyes showed
Tomori, Z., Lemáková, S., Gromysz, H., Stránsky, A.: Changes in the respiratory centre activity elicited by mechanical stimulation of the airways. Bull. Physiopathol. Resp. 12 , 76P-78P (1976).
Changes in the respiratory centre