; nevertheless, several healing practices used to treat babies are mentioned here to demonstrate their variety. One such practice was fumigation with rye flour or sanctified herbs ( Mickevičius 2009 :140). Babies could also be passed through a horse-collar (LTA
Authors:Elek Benkő, Pál Sümegi, Tünde Törőcsik, Elvira Bodor, Balázs Sümegi, and Gusztáv Jakab
the flour mills, a fulling mill as well. 24 Larger oak forests in the 17 th –18 th century are only recorded in the hills on the northern edge of the villages in question. This picture – of wet fields on the Mureş flood plain and smaller forests on
. And he gave corn flour, and rice for us to sow, and oil, salad oil, what else? That’s all. Anyone who asked got what they asked for.
Everybody? Everybody who came to him?
Just like that?
Yes, and he did that so that the people would
This study analyses the expenditures made during Sultan Murat IV's (1623-1640) Bagdad campaign. Bagdad was under the rule of the Safevi state sduring that period. The Ottomans lost Bagdad as a result of Bekir Subasi's revolt. Sultan Murat's Bagdad campaign started on April 8, 1638 and lasetd 191 days. There are a lot of documents concerning in the campaign in the Ottoman archives in Istanbul. Data in the register of expenditures number 169 were evaluated in this study. It is known that during such campaigns the taxpaying population had to deliver food to the Ottoman army in the form müzül and sürsat. Among these, barely, flour, bread, peksimet, butter and honey take the first place. They cost 2,824,523 akçe in 1638, this being only a part of all expenditures.
The paper presents magical procedures (prayers, songs, charms) and practices against natural calamity in mountain villages (in the south of Poland) in the context of a human shape called weather wizard. He was created on the base of the beliefs in air demons (
płanetnik, chmurnik, obłocznik
), as a mediator between people and demons. The weather wizard had two types of roles. The first one comprised “cooperation” with air demons, whereas the second included independent practices related to protecting the village from storms. Magic procedures used by weather wizards included verbal formulas, certain types of behaviour, as well as religious and magical accessories and property. The formulas constituted a mixture of a magic spell and a prayer to God. Apart from weather wizards’ practices, magic activities were popular among village inhabitants. For example they ploughed the village borders, placed “relics” along these borders, burnt flour or blessed herbs, ringed, danced, sang songs. Opposing the elements in the form of spells, entreaties, threats, noise making, sacrifices with the participation of a mediator (weather wizard) or without, is in general a legacy of the past related to traditional culture. Nowadays, people appeal to God but also simultaneously perform old magic and religious procedures.
Bread is baked from the crushed (or ground) seeds of grain. Around 10,000 years ago people cooked porridge or gruel and at least 3000 years ago leavened the dough of bread. In Europe, north of the Alps, it was only from the 16th century that the consumption of bread (and porridge) spread widely. Urban population concentrations grew, while yields fell due to the climatic deterioration. Greater areas of land were ploughed for grain cultivation and, independently of the quality of flour improved as a result of technical innovations in milling. The main factors for the dominance of grain were given. In regions where little was produced due to the natural endowments, such as the Mediterranean, bread grain was imported from Antiquity (Panem et circenses!). In mediaeval Europe nutrition was still characterised by the consumption of meat and vegetables (mainly cabbage). The balance tilted in the towns where the predominance of cereals can be observed. North-western Europe imported grain from the Baltic region. Up to the 18th century Eastern Central Europe exported beef cattle to the towns of Central Europe. As the demand for grain grew grazing land was ploughed and in the 19th century the country exported grain. Cereal consumption took the forms mainly of porridge, griddle-cakes, and later bread, dumplings and various kinds of boiled noodles. At the same time the role of soups (hot pots) in the daily diet increased. Bread and soup marked a new era in the history of menus. The people of Eastern Europe are still porridge-eaters. Almost from the start brewing has been one of the technologies for cereal consumption. Beer, with an increasing alcohol content, was at first the drink of urban dwellers, but later after the Middle Ages the peasantry also drank increasing quantities of ever stronger beer. Together with this latter process, grain spirits (whisky, gin, vodka, etc.) were also drunk on a growing scale. Distillation was an Arab invention and spread in the monasteries from the Middle Ages. At first Aqua vitae was a medicine but later shifted to the profane sphere in almost all respects.