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The herbarium of Paulus Kitaibel (1757–1817) has been preserved in good condition and can still be used for the investigation of problematic questions. There happens to be a misidentified specimen on the back of one of the sheets. Although it has been studied by several botanists, it has proved impossible to identify this species because important morphological traits have been lost due to the age of the preserved material. The complete ITS region of the over 200-year-old herbarium specimen has been amplified by PCR. Sequence analysis and the secondary structure modelling of the ITS2 RNA transcript clearly provided, that the specimen is Solanum scabrum , thus settling the controversy surrounding this question. This result is particularly interesting, as the presence of S. scabrum in the Hungarian flora, has never been officially documented.

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The taxon currently named P. officinalis subsp. banatica has been treated as a subspecies of P. officinalis by most authors. Recent genetic studies revealed that this taxon is an ancient allotetraploid hybrid carrying the genes of P. mairei and the ancestor of P. officinalis. Based on its current polyphyletic status, degree of genetic and morphological divergence, its geographical distribution and unique genetic constitution I argue that this viewpoint is incorrect, and this taxon should be recognised as an independent species.

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Biologia Futura
Authors: Zoltán Attila Köbölkuti, Klára Cseke, Attila Benke, Mátyás Báder, Attila Borovics, and Róbert Németh

sequence sets from Hungarian poplar clones commonly used in breeding programs; and (d) to identify “clone specific” haplotypes in these target regions with possible use in further association genetic studies by correlating adequate levels of nucleotide

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For a molecular genetic study on Hungarian populations of European corn borer L5 stage larvae were collected from 14 places of three different regions of the country (uni- and bivoltine ecotypes). Additionally, the study included larvae from Egypt, too (multivoltine ecotype). Molecular examinations of European corn borer larvae using the study of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) revealed that by single strand conformation polimorphism (SSCP) the populations found in Hungary represented the same haplotype. Even the Egyptian sample showed no genetic divergence. Some minor deviatons were found in the case of a sample from Székkutas, but that did not prove the genetic divergence of the bivoltine ecotype either, since the other samples of South-East Hungary did not display this kind of genetic variation. On the basis of our investigations it can be said that the univoltine and bivoltine generations, have uniform genetic complements.

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The increasing economic importance of triticale (×Triticosecale Wittm.) makes this synthetic hybrid cereal an interesting object of genetic studies. Genomic regions (QTL) of morphological winter triticale traits were determined using the mapping population of 89 doubled haploids lines (DHs) developed from F1 hybrid of cv. ‘Hewo’ and cv. ‘Magnat’ accompanied with the genetic map consisting of 20 linkage groups assigned to the A (7), B (7), and R (6) genomes (total of 3539 DArT, SNP-DArT and SSR markers, length of 4997.4 cM). Five independent experiments were performed in the field and greenhouse controlled conditions. A total of 12 major QTLs located on 2B, 5A, 5R, and 6B chromosomes connected to the stem length, the plant height, the spike length, the number of the productive spikelets per spike, the number of grains per spike, and the thousand kernel weight were identified by a composite interval mapping (CIM).

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Balázs, I., Baird, M., Clyne, M., Meade, E. (1989) Human population genetic studies of five hypervariable DNA loci. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 44 , 182-190. Human population genetic studies of five hypervariable DNA loci

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The European corn borer moth, (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, Pyraustinae) is one of the most destructive pests of maize worldwide. ECB has two pheromone-strains, separated by specific ratios of isomers of E- and Z11-tetradecenyl acetates (E11- and Z11-14Ac), but appearing morphologically identical. Accordingly, E- and Z-ECB pheromone traps are available for the respective populations for practical monitoring of the flight, however, traps for Z-strain are unreliable for practical usage in some parts of Central-Europe. E- and Z-ECB populations occur in sympatry in some areas, while in allelopatry in other areas. Determining the strains before the flight of adults, when difference in the composition of their respective pheromones is manifested, would be of practical interest for early warning. In addition to the known fatty-acyl-reductase (FAR) marker, further markers would allow more comprehensive studies. We screened the following common markers for mitochondrial and nuclear DNA regions: partial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI), cytochrome B (CytB), the second spacer of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS2), Elongation factor 1a (EF1a) and actin gene (Act). In addition, a marker of the Δ11-desaturase gene (11desat), linked to biosynthesis of female-produced sex pheromone, was also included, because we reported earlier a differential expression for this site. Three Z-ECB populations locating at distant sites within Hungary, an area where only Z-strain occurs, and an E-ECB population in Slovenia, known as the closest-occurring E-strain, were included into the study. Separate laboratory colonies were established from each population, and F1 generations were sampled to verify the identity of pheromone strains, by analysing the composition of sex pheromone by gas chromatography linked to an electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD). Molecular studies were conducted using specimens taken from the F2 generations. Results of genetic studies showed that there were no differences between the Z and E populations for the common markers. In contrast to this, several nucleic acid changes (11 nt in 4 positions) were found between the three Z-populations (Hungary) and the E-population (Slovenia) in the desaturase marker. Further study is required to reveal whether the differences found in this study are consistent across E-populations, thus making these markers suitable for diagnostic purposes.

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Genetic and resistance studies were carried out on alloplasmic and backcross lines of spring soft wheat cultivars Leningradka and Saratovskaya-29. As a result of interspecific crossings some lines and hybrids exhibited cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). Restorers of fertility and resistance to infections were also determined. The importance of use of alloplasmic lines for practical wheat breeding and for genetic studies is discussed.

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1 5 Bonnet, A., Thévenon, S., Maudet, F., Maillard, J. C. (2002) Efficiency of semi-automated fluorescent multiplex PCRs with 11 microsatellite markers for genetic studies of

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. 97 975 976 Padhy, R. N. and Singh, P. K (1978): Genetical studies on the heterocyst and nitrogen fixation of the blue green alga Nostoc muscorum

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