The herbarium of Paulus Kitaibel (1757–1817) has been preserved in good condition and can still be used for the investigation of problematic questions. There happens to be a misidentified specimen on the back of one of the sheets. Although it has been studied by several botanists, it has proved impossible to identify this species because important morphological traits have been lost due to the age of the preserved material. The complete ITS region of the over 200-year-old herbarium specimen has been amplified by PCR. Sequence analysis and the secondary structure modelling of the ITS2 RNA transcript clearly provided, that the specimen is
, thus settling the controversy surrounding this question. This result is particularly interesting, as the presence of
in the Hungarian flora, has never been officially documented.
The taxon currently named P. officinalis subsp.
banatica has been treated as a subspecies of P. officinalis by most authors.
Recent genetic studies revealed that this taxon is an ancient allotetraploid
hybrid carrying the genes of P. mairei and the ancestor of P. officinalis.
Based on its current polyphyletic status, degree of genetic and morphological
divergence, its geographical distribution and unique genetic constitution I
argue that this viewpoint is incorrect, and this taxon should be recognised as an
Authors:Zoltán Attila Köbölkuti, Klára Cseke, Attila Benke, Mátyás Báder, Attila Borovics, and Róbert Németh
sequence sets from Hungarian poplar clones commonly used in breeding programs; and (d) to identify “clone specific” haplotypes in these target regions with possible use in further association geneticstudies by correlating adequate levels of nucleotide
For a molecular genetic study on Hungarian populations of European corn borer L5 stage larvae were collected from 14 places of three different regions of the country (uni- and bivoltine ecotypes). Additionally, the study included larvae from Egypt, too (multivoltine ecotype). Molecular examinations of European corn borer larvae using the study of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) revealed that by single strand conformation polimorphism (SSCP) the populations found in Hungary represented the same haplotype. Even the Egyptian sample showed no genetic divergence. Some minor deviatons were found in the case of a sample from Székkutas, but that did not prove the genetic divergence of the bivoltine ecotype either, since the other samples of South-East Hungary did not display this kind of genetic variation. On the basis of our investigations it can be said that the univoltine and bivoltine generations, have uniform genetic complements.
Authors:K. Wajdzik, G. Gołębiowska, M. Dyda, K. Gawrońska, M. Rapacz, and M. Wędzony
The increasing economic importance of triticale (×Triticosecale Wittm.) makes this synthetic hybrid cereal an interesting object of genetic studies. Genomic regions (QTL) of morphological winter triticale traits were determined using the mapping population of 89 doubled haploids lines (DHs) developed from F1 hybrid of cv. ‘Hewo’ and cv. ‘Magnat’ accompanied with the genetic map consisting of 20 linkage groups assigned to the A (7), B (7), and R (6) genomes (total of 3539 DArT, SNP-DArT and SSR markers, length of 4997.4 cM). Five independent experiments were performed in the field and greenhouse controlled conditions. A total of 12 major QTLs located on 2B, 5A, 5R, and 6B chromosomes connected to the stem length, the plant height, the spike length, the number of the productive spikelets per spike, the number of grains per spike, and the thousand kernel weight were identified by a composite interval mapping (CIM).
Authors:L. Keresztury, A. Lászik, A. Falus, and et al
Balázs, I., Baird, M., Clyne, M., Meade, E. (1989) Human population geneticstudies of five hypervariable DNA loci. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 44 , 182-190.
Human population geneticstudies of five hypervariable DNA loci
Authors:G. Bozsik, A. Lakatos, G. Szőcs, and I. Tóbiás
The European corn borer moth, (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis
(Lepidoptera: Crambidae, Pyraustinae) is one of the most destructive pests of
maize worldwide. ECB has two pheromone-strains, separated by specific ratios of
isomers of E- and Z11-tetradecenyl acetates (E11- and Z11-14Ac), but appearing
morphologically identical. Accordingly, E- and Z-ECB pheromone traps are
available for the respective populations for practical monitoring of the flight,
however, traps for Z-strain are unreliable for practical usage in some parts of
Central-Europe. E- and Z-ECB populations occur in sympatry in some areas, while
in allelopatry in other areas. Determining the strains before the flight of
adults, when difference in the composition of their respective pheromones is
manifested, would be of practical interest for early warning. In addition to the
known fatty-acyl-reductase (FAR) marker, further markers would allow more
comprehensive studies. We screened the following common markers for
mitochondrial and nuclear DNA regions: partial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI),
cytochrome B (CytB), the second spacer of the internal transcribed spacer
(ITS2), Elongation factor 1a (EF1a) and actin gene (Act). In addition, a marker
of the Δ11-desaturase gene (11desat), linked to biosynthesis of female-produced
sex pheromone, was also included, because we reported earlier a differential
expression for this site. Three Z-ECB populations locating at distant sites
within Hungary, an area where only Z-strain occurs, and an E-ECB population in
Slovenia, known as the closest-occurring E-strain, were included into the study.
Separate laboratory colonies were established from each population, and
F1 generations were sampled to verify the identity of pheromone
strains, by analysing the composition of sex pheromone by gas chromatography
linked to an electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD). Molecular studies were
conducted using specimens taken from the F2 generations. Results of
genetic studies showed that there were no differences between the Z and E
populations for the common markers. In contrast to this, several nucleic acid
changes (11 nt in 4 positions) were found between the three Z-populations
(Hungary) and the E-population (Slovenia) in the desaturase marker. Further
study is required to reveal whether the differences found in this study are
consistent across E-populations, thus making these markers suitable for
Genetic and resistance studies were carried out on alloplasmic and backcross lines of spring soft wheat cultivars Leningradka and Saratovskaya-29. As a result of interspecific crossings some lines and hybrids exhibited cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). Restorers of fertility and resistance to infections were also determined. The importance of use of alloplasmic lines for practical wheat breeding and for genetic studies is discussed.