In the late 19th century a few Quattrocento initials and border ornaments were glued into the incunabula of the Pauer collection in the Episcopal Library of Székesfehérvár. The pictures are by Venetian illuminators painted for liturgical choir books. Bishop of Székesfehérvár János Pauer collected incunabula between 1879 and 1886 and probably obtained five complete large manuscript folios at that time as well. The parchment sheets were probably cut up by printer Kálmán Számmer upon the bishop's commission. Számmer completed the missing initials with hand painting, coloured the printed initials and sometimes composed colourful letters or a whole ornate title-page around a 15th century manuscript fragment stuck into the incunabulum. Among the fragments the most significant pieces are Cristoforo Cortese's signed initial showing St Francis enthroned surrounded by the host of angels and another Cortese fragment of two Franciscan monks. Similarly to the initial showing St Francis' death in the Wildenstein collection (Paris, Musée Marmottan), the illumination was presumably made after 1426, following Cortese's move to Bologna. The closest analogy of the Székesfehérvár composition is a Maiestas domini miniature painted by the “master of 1346” of Bologna. Originally, the codex from which the folio illuminated by Cortese comes was possibly made for a Franciscan community in Bologna, perhaps the Santi Ludovico e Alessio Convent of St Clare nuns ransacked by Napoleon's troops in 1798. The depiction of St Francis surrounded by adoring angels is remarkable for its iconography because it is a so-far unknown variant of the Franciscus alter Christus idea. The illuminator of the other four large initials showing half-length figures of prophets in Székesfehérvár is a later follower of the Master of San Michele a Murano. So far research has linked up three works by this master; the Székesfehérvár pictures show very close kinship with two initials dated to 1470 (New Haven, Yale University Art Gallery, and private collection, resp.).
The collecting work for the catalogue of the sepulchral monuments of mediaeval Hungary begun by Dénes Radocsay was resumed in 1979. The team of Lívia Varga, Pál Engel and Pál Lővei began assessing the sites with the active support of Miklós Mojzer.
In the course of the work we took note of a few tombs in the lettering of which the chiselled lines were filled with black or reddish brown materials, e.g. the tombslab of the Transylvanian bishop Imre Ónodi Cudar (†1389) in the cathedral of Gyulafehérvár (Alba Iulia), the tombstone of Mayor Augustinus Cromer (†1472) in the wall of the St Michael chapel in Kassa (Košice). At the beginning, we were only concerned with the provenance of the stones of the funerary monuments as a subsidiary research. The mentioned observations, however, led to the scientific investigation of the other materials on the surfaces only available today in few traces. This additional research might – in lucky cases – contribute to the determination of the typical use of materials by a certain workshop or period. X-ray diffractometry of dust was the useful method for the determination of the filling materials of the incised grooves. The set of phases determined by XRD revealed a varied use of materials, although the transformation caused by crumbling, particularly with organic glues, aggravated and sometimes foiled the reconstruction of the original materials.
The samples were uniformly determined by the iron as original colour-development material, either in form of oxidation (maghemite, hematite, goethite, wüstite), or as metal iron – the original colour was black.
– Tóth, Mária : Középkori színes paszták, koragasztók és festékek anyagvizsgálata (Esztergom, Pilis, Gyulafehérvár, Kassa) [Examinations of Medieval Colour Mastics, Stone Glues and Paints /Esztergom, Pilis
states as much, in Latin note, and by the late seventh–century North African Romance would have been the linguistic glue that held such confederacies together. A second example, more pertinent to the invasion period, is of the anthroponymically Romanised
evidence against an analysis of the weak nominative enclitics as agreement suffixes glued directly onto the T head. I therefore propose that utterances such as (29a) and (29b) be treated as the product of a special adjustment rule, one that applies late in
wheel outside on the shoulder. Fired greyish-black in places. In a large spot on the rim and inside and outside rust-coloured discolouration. Glued, intact vessel. Md: 8 cm, h: 9 cm, fd: 4.5 cm, wt: 0.4 cm. Fs: floor, room built in the north wing, to the