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424 Payne, P.I., Jackson, E.A., Holt, L.M. 1984. The association between γ -gliadin 45 and gluten strength in durum wheat varieties: A direct causal effect or the result of genetic linkage

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The milling and baking quality of wheat is mainly determined by the genetic basis, but may also be influenced by management techniques. Series of winter wheat varieties were examined under identical agronomic conditions in the experimental years of 1996-2001. Weed control, the rate and application time of nitrogen top dressing, the use of insecticide and fungicide and the climate of the production year were evaluated as main factors. In the present study two major characteristics: the protein and gluten content of grain samples, were examined. The effect of nitrogen fertilization proved to have the strongest impact on both quality indexes. no significant quality differences were induced by the various means of weed control. Plant protection treatments had a rather diverse effect on the contents of the protein and gluten in certain years. The protein and gluten values were correlated in all the experimental treatments, but the level of the correlation showed considerable variation. The effect of crop year proved to be the strongest, followed by fertilization, from among the quality-determining factors. The protein versus gluten correlation was also found to be the closest in the case of nitrogen top dressing applications.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: T. Abonyi, S. Tömösközi, M. Budai, Sz. Gergely, É. Scholz, D. Lásztity, and R. Lásztity

Abonyi, T., Király, I., Tömösközi, S., Baticz, O., Guóth, A., Gergely, Sz., Scholz, É., Lásztity, D., Lásztity, R. 2007. Synthesis of gluten-forming polypeptides. 1. Biosynthesis of gliadins and glutenin subunits

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447 454 Johansson, E., Nillson, H., Mazhar, H., Skerritt, J., Macritchie, F., Svensson, G. (2002) Seasonal effects on storage proteins and gluten strength in four Swedish wheat

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., Véha, A., Petróczi, I.M. 2006. Mûtrágyával és fungiciddel kezelt aestivum búzák nedvessikér-tartalom, valorigráfos és alveográfos vizsgálatai az évjáratok függvényében (Effect of fertilizers and fungicides on the wet gluten content, valorigraphic and

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102 134 137 Carrillo, J.M., Vazquez, J.F., Orellana, J. 1990. Relationship between gluten strength and glutenin proteins in durum wheat cultivars

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187 Tanács L.-Gerő L. (2001): Effects of herbicides and fungicides on the gluten content, gluten spreading and falling number of the grain yield of winter wheat varieties (in Hungarian

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Altenbach, S.B., Kothari, K.M., Lieu, D. 2002. Environmental conditions during wheat grain development alter temporal regulation of major gluten protein genes. Cereal Chem. 79 :279

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Abonyi, T., Tömösközy, S., Budai, M., Gergely, S., Scholz, É., Lásztity, D., Lásztity, R. (2010): Gluten formation from flour of kernels in developing wheat grain. Cereal Res. Commun. , 38 , 90

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In this study, the effects of 18 different additive formulas constituted with xanthan and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) gums (hydrocolloids) were examined in the manufacture of corn starch based gluten-free bread. The additives used as alone or in combinations in the bread manufacture. It was also added with mono- and diglyceride based gel preparations and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides for improving glutenfree bread characteristics. The volumes and softness of the breads have been measured as maximum when HPMC was used alone in increasing order from 1 to 2%. While HPMC gum improved the volume and softness of bread more than Xanthan gum, Xanthan gum improved the grain structure of crumb more than HPMC. In general, these hydrocolloids gave a good quality of bread in terms of moisture content, grain structure and Neumann baking coefficient values, when they were used with combinations rather than being used individually. Addition of surfactant to all combinations always enhanced the grain structure of bread. In contrast, it either worsened or did not change the volume and softness of the bread.

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