Authors:Attila Trájer, Antal Rengei, Kinga Farkas-Iványi, and Ákos Bede-Fazekas
Frissell , C. A. , Liss , W. J. , Warren , C. E. and Hurley , M. D. ( 1986 ): A hierarchical framework for stream habitat classification: viewing streams in a watershed context. . J. Environ. Manage. 10 , 199 – 214
In this study, the relationship between five water-quality parameters (water temperature, pH, conductivity, water-soluble oxygen (WSO) and organic matter content (chemical oxygen demand — COD)) and avian botulism cases were examined using statistical methods. Five-five sampling points, located in high and low avian botulism risk (HR and LR) areas of Lake ‘Kis-Balaton’ were chosen, respectively. Data from 5 HR and 5 LR years were processed.In some cases, significant (P<0.05) differences were discovered in water temperature, pH, WSO and COD values between HR and LR sites and years.Discriminant analysis verified positive relationship between the occurrence of avian botulism outbreaks and characteristics of the sampling sites in 16/20 cases (80.0%). In the remaining instances, the role of other, not examined factors could be also important.
Additional geographical distribution of the Central European populations of Schistosoma turkestanicum and the detectability of their eggs in droppings were investigated in red deer samples, because this rare species had previously been shown only in a single Hungarian habitat. Samples from visceral organs, intestinal contents, and droppings on the ground from 11 hunting areas of Hungary were investigated to find a new presence of this fluke. Close to the first site of detection in the Gemenc forest another habitat along the southern border of the country was found where the parasite lives in red deer. Therefore, it is possible that the worm also occurs in neighbouring Serbia or Croatia. Schistosoma turkestanicum causes a low-intensity infection in red deer and this host sheds low amounts of eggs, therefore the eggs are difficult to detect. Droppings were cleared by sedimentation, filtered by sieve screening and then the eggs were flotated using solutions with an increasing density of 1200 g/L, 1300 g/L, 1350 g/L, and 1400 g/L while they were being stained red with acid fuchsin. Eggs in fresh faeces can be most efficiently separated from plant fibres using a flotation solution of 1350 g/L density, but in some cases eggs in old dung can be detected using a solution of a specific gravity lower or higher than that. By combining the advantages of the three concentration processes, eggs of S. turkestanicum, which are more recognisable by the red stain, can be found in samples in which they are present at a density lower than 1/g.
Összefoglaló. A mikroszkóp felfedezése óta tudjuk, hogy az egymással
szoros közelségben élő egyedeknek nem csupán a látható élőhelyük közös, hanem
szemmel nem érzékelhető mikroorganizmusokat is megosztanak egymással, melyek
bizonyos fokban adaptálódtak gazdáikhoz. Az emberek életterének bővülésével és
ezzel párhuzamosan az állatok élőhelyének csökkenésével azonban új állatfajok
kerülhetnek veszélyes közelségbe, ami következményes mikrobaátadással és az új
gazdában a mikroba eltérő viselkedésével járhat. Feltételezhetően ez a jelenség
vezetett a súlyos akut légzőszervi szindróma koronavírus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)
kialakulásához, mely 2019-ben jelent meg először emberekben, és néhány hónap
leforgása alatt milliókat fertőzött meg az egész világon. A pandémia
leküzdéséhez és az újabb járványok megelőzéséhez minden lehetséges eszközt fel
kell használni, ami együttműködést kíván a humánorvoslás és az állatgyógyászat,
valamint az ökológiai, evolúciós és környezeti tudományok szakemberei között a
globális „Egy Egészség” keretében. A közös célok érdekében történő összefogás
jegyében a jelen tanulmány állatorvos és humánorvos szerzőpárosa összefoglalja
azon ismereteket, amelyek a SARS-CoV-2 vonatkozásában mindkét szakma számára
érdemlegesek lehetnek. Bemutatásra kerül a vírus eredete, természetes és
mesterséges előfordulása különböző állatfajokban, valamint az állati
koronavírusokkal kapcsolatos azon tapasztalatok, amelyek hozzájárulhatnak a
SARS-CoV-2 működésének megértéséhez és az ellene való védekezés
tökéletesítéséhez. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(5): 163–170.
Summary.Introduction: Since the discovery of the microscope, we have
known that individuals living in close proximity to each other share not only
their visible habitat, but also invisible microorganisms that have adapted to
some degree to their hosts. However, as human habitat expands and, in parallel,
animal territory declines, new animal species can come into dangerous proximity,
which may result in consequential transmission of microbes and different
microbial behaviour in the new host. Presumably, this phenomenon led to the
development of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2),
which first appeared in humans in 2019 and infected millions over the course of
a few months worldwide. All possible means must be used to combat the pandemic
and prevent further epidemics, which will require cooperation between
professionals in human medicine and veterinary medicine as well as in the
ecological, evolutionary and environmental sciences, within the framework of the
global “One Health”. In a spirit of working together for common goals, the
authors of this study, a veterinarian and a human physician, summarize the
knowledge that may be relevant to both professions for SARS-CoV-2. The origin of
the virus, its natural and artificial occurrence in different animal species,
and experiences with animal coronaviruses that may contribute to the
understanding of the functioning of SARS-CoV-2 and the development of protection
against it are presented. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(5): 163–170.
The lack of knowledge on how to perform species-specific electrocardiographic (ECG) measurements in chelonians makes ECG evaluations difficult. The aim of this study was to establish non-invasive methods for ECG sample collection in different species of non-anaesthetised chelonians, focusing on adhesive and clamp electrodes. A total of 72 turtles and tortoises from 20 species and various sizes were used for the study. Body weight ranged from 32 g to 65 kg. From the aspect of specimen fixation, dorsal recumbency proved to be the most useful. Both adhesive and clamp electrodes yielded results when applied to the plastron and skin folds. Pre-emptive results suggest an indirect correlation with plastron thickness, the presence of a hinge, habitat and measurable ECG wave amplitude. ECG wave recordings are more likely in aquatic chelonians and species with a hinge. With size the plastron also thickens, making wave detection impossible. ECG waves were detected in 41 of the 72 specimens, complete PQRST complexes in 19 animals, with the rest showing absent P waves in all leads. ECG amplitudes were below 1 mV, with an average of 0.15 mV R wave amplitude.
Authors:Andrea K. Borsodi, Ágnes Bárány, Gergely Krett, Károly Márialigeti, and Tibor Szili-Kovács
Many halophytes and halophilic microorganisms are capable to adapt to the extremities of saline habitats. This study reveals the taxonomic diversity and ecological tolerance of bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of three different halophytes (Bolboschoenus maritimus, Puccinellia limosa and Aster tripolium) living in the vicinity of Kiskunság soda ponds. Following a sampling in September 2013, altogether 76 bacterial strains were isolated using two different media. The strains were identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing following ARDRA grouping. Salt and pH tolerance of the strains were examined by measuring their growth in broths containing 0–15% NaCl (w/V) and characterized with pH 7–12 values. Among the strains genera of Anaerobacillus, Bacillus and Exiguobacterium (Firmicutes), Agromyces, Isoptericola, Microbacterium, Micrococcus, Nocardiopsis, Nesterenkonia and Streptomyces (Actinobacteria), Halomonas and Idiomarina (Proteobacteria) and Anditalea (Bacteroidetes) were identified. The Bolboschoenus and Puccinellia samples characterized with the highest pH and electric conductivity values were dominated by Bacillus, Halomonas and Nesterenkonia, respectively. The salt tolerance of the bacterial strains was strongly dependent on the sampling location and plant species. In contrast, growth of bacterial strains in broths with alkaline pH values was more balanced. The strains from the Puccinellia sample showed the widest salt and pH tolerance.
Authors:Gergely Krett, Zsuzsanna Nagymáté, Károly Márialigeti, and Andrea K. Borsodi
Lake Hévíz is a unique thermal spa located in Hungary. Owing to the thermal springs nourishing the lake, it has a relatively rapid water turnover. In spring 2011 a comprehensive embankment reconstruction was performed to preserve the water supply of the surrounding wetland habitats. The physical and chemical parameters as well as the planktonic microbial communities were studied with special respect to the effect of the disturbance of the water of Lake Hévíz. According to the abiotic components, both temporal and spatial differences were revealed with the exception of autumn samples. The reconstruction resulted in a short term but dramatic alteration of the total planktonic bacterial and cyanobacterial community structures as revealed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. In addition, greater seasonal than spatial differences of bacterial communities were also observed. Planktonic bacterial community composition of Lake Hévíz included mainly typical freshwater species within phylum Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria and class Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria. Most of them were aerobic or facultative anaerobic heterotrophic but chemolitotrophic (e.g. Thiobacillus) or photolithotrophic (e.g. Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi) autotrophic microbes were also identified.