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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: O. Velasco-González, S. Echavarría-Almeida, A. Pajarito, and E. San Martín-Martinez

Velasco-González, O.H., Bernal, L.I. & Azteinza, B.G. (1991): Bean separation of different grades of hardness. 8th Word Congress of Food Science and Technology . 29 Sep–4 October, Toronto, Canada, pp. 177

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Development of biomineralizing techniques requires new or borrowed methods, as well as instruments for the evaluation of the efficacy of the biomineralization. The aim of the research was to evaluate the appropriateness of two existing techniques for measuring the surface hardness and material loss of microbially treated porous limestone surfaces. Measurements were done with Duroscope, and with the peeling-tape method. The techniques were tested in a comparison trial, where different bio-based curing compounds were applied on porous Sóskút limestone slabs. Two of the bio-based, and the conventional compounds show higher development in the surface rebound values (86.67 to 201.1%) and higher decrease in material-loss (−39.5 to 96.3%) compared to the control specimen. Through statistical analysis of statistical samples with a high number of results, the suitability of the techniques was evaluated.

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The fat content of Bologna-type turkey sausages was partially replaced with pea fiber or potato starch. Textural properties of full fat turkey sausage were mainly restored in sausages when fat was partially replaced with some levels of pea fiber (0.6, 1.2%) or potato starch (1.9%). Authors observed significant correlation (P<0.01) between instrumentally measured values of hardness and chewiness and sensory ratings of low fat sausages.

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A new objective texture test method was developed and compared with the goose liver manual grading system. The whole fatty goose livers were purchased from Bábolna Holdings and were examined at two stages: in the preliminary test three times 3 pieces were taken, while in the main test five times 22 pieces. All of them were examined both at a pre-cooled stage and after a 24-hour storage on ice. The texture analyses were made by QTS 25 texture test system immediately after the manual grading. A special probe with three needles was developed for the Texture Analyser. Most of the texture parameters correlated significantly with the liver grades, as shown by statistical evaluation of the data. The best quality assessment was made by a binary equation where the hardness value and the mass of the product were the independent variables.

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Apricot is an important fruit species in Hungary both for fresh consumption and processing. Physical parameters and change of nutrients of nine apricot cultivars were studied during the ripening period. Four Hungarian and five North-American apricot cultivars were chosen for investigation. Changes in the physical parameters were measured by three different methods (Magness-Taylor hand penetrometer, Bookfield CT3 Texture Analyser with TA 44 and TA 9 measuring head). Significant differences in flesh firmness among the cultivars were observed mainly at the beginning of ripening time. Adhesiveness, cohesiveness and chewiness of the fruits decreased continuously during ripening. The studied cultivars showed significant differences in these traits. Sugar and acid contents were also measured during ripening. The cultivars showed small differences in sugar content and bigger differences in acid content of the fruits. Our data measured and collected during this study can be useful in characterizing the apricot cultivars studied. Changes in the texture parameters responsible for transportability and the technological usability of the fruits were described across the whole ripening period. Our results may help growers as well as food technologists to determine the optimum harvest date of cultivars intended to be used for different purposes.

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. TiO 2 film alone has some disadvantages, such as low hardness, and it can be easily destroyed under harsh conditions, such as chloric environment, which ultimately lead to release of Ni, Al, V, and the different toxic ions from the implant materials

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: E. Kovács, P. Merész, Z. Kristóf, and E. Németh-Szerdahelyi

Colour, texture, pectin autolysis, membrane permeability and microstructure (SEM, TEM), β-galactosidase and polygalacturonase were studied in apricots (cv. Magyar kajszi) harvested in mature green, straw yellow, bright orange and deep orange stages. The L* increased from mature green to straw yellow then decreased from straw yellow to deep orange state. The a* values increased with ripening. The bright and deep orange apricots were significantly softer than the mature green and straw yellow ones and the membrane permeability increased with ripening. The presence of β-galactosidase enzyme was proved by immunoblotting analysis using monoclonal anti-β-galactosidase clone GAL-13 (Sigma) in all ripening stages. The enzyme activity was very low in mature green stage and increased significantly (P>95%) with increasing ripeness and during storage. The PG activity was very low in the mature green apricot. A significant (P>95%) increase was observed in the straw yellow apricot and in the riper fruits. The mature green apricot showed a regular, the straw yellow and bright orange samples showed a moderately regular tissue structure, while the tissue of the deep orange apricot collapsed (SEM). The cell wall and the middle lamella of the green apricot (TEM) were intact. Generally, there were intact cytoplasm membranes with some damaged parts. In the straw yellow apricot, the cell wall started to loosen, the middle lamella lost pectic polysaccharides. The structure of the cytoplasm was not recognisable, the tonoplast and the cytoplasm membrane were injured. The cell wall of the bright orange apricot was similar to that of the straw yellow ones. The middle lamella dissolved and hairy, fibrillar structure of cell wall was found in the deep orange samples.

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, there is a limit to the mechanical properties of rubber that can be achieved by mere vulcanization [ 2 ]. The introduction of fillers to natural rubber improves its properties such as high stiffness, compression strength, hardness and other physical

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that friction time, friction pressure, and forging pressure have a strong effect on tensile strength, microstructures, and hardness of joints. In addition, Alves et al. [ 18 ] studied the rotary friction welding of AA 1050 aluminum alloy to AISI 304

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International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Authors: Adebayo Surajudeen Adekunle, Adekunle Akanni Adeleke, Peter Pelumi Ikubanni, Peter Olorunleke Omoniyi, Tajudeen Adelani Gbadamosi, and Jamiu Kolawole Odusote

groundnut oil gives the best result at 350 °C. Meanwhile, the highest hardness values were obtained from sample quenched in melon oil. Durowoju et al. [ 21 ] investigated the impact of severity and hardness using eco-friendly quenchants such as groundnut

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