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Abstract  

In-vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) is now routinely used for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of many diseases e.g. those of the skeletal system and those involving nutrition. Total body calcium (TBCa) and total body nitrogen(TBN) measurement are two such procedures. IVNAA facilities are designed for patient comfort and ease of operation in a hospital setting. They use portable isotopic neutron sources and conventional electronics. They are effective, non-invasive and, often, revenue generating in health care settings. They are now becoming common in health care facilities.

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Hypoxis (Hypoxidaceae) consists of about 90 species of plants reported worldwide, of which 76 occur in Africa. As many as 41 species are indigenous to countries belonging to the Southern African Development Community (SADC), including South Africa. Of all the Hypoxis species, Hypoxis hemerocallidea has versatile application in traditional health care system of over 85% of South Africans and is regarded as one of the most ethnomedicinally important and most marketed species in South Africa. H. hemerocallidea corm’s water or alcoholic extract is widely used as traditional medicine for the treatment of benign hypertrophy and urinary tract infections as well as for boosting the immune system of people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) among others. However, the use of other parts of Hypoxis plant as medicine is vital for conservation purposes. The roots attached on the corm of H. hemerocallidea contain hypoxoside, but the roots are usually ripped off during the preparation of Hypoxis-containing traditional medicines and other herbal products. A developed and validated, affordable but reliable high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) densitometry for the rapid and repeatable visualization and quantitative determination of hypoxoside from the roots of H. hemerocallidea was performed. After thin-layer chromatography analysis, the hypoxoside resolved and was visualized at R F of 0.30 in CHCl3‒MeOH‒H20 (70:30:2 v/v). The method was linear with R2 of 0.9876 over a calibration range of 0.20 × 10−4–1.80 × 10−3 mg mL−1. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 5.08 × 10−4 and 1.65 × 10−3 mg mL−1, respectively, while the percentage recovery and the method repeatability (%RSD) were 84.10 and 4.98, respectively. The roots of H. hemerocallidea were found to contain 4.101 × 10−4 mg mL−1 of hypoxoside.

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Conclusion  

I gegan this address by referring to the tremendous advances that have been made in the field of nuclear medicine. The very fact that this international symposium on radioiodines is being held and the broad range of papers being presented on production, chemistry, measurement, labeling, toxicology, and medical use are indicative of the importance of the many contributing fields of scientific and technological endeavour. The titles of the papers to be presented in themselves bear witness to the highly specialized expertise which exists and which is the sine qua non of the success that has been achieved in this very challenging but essential area of health care. It is evident that the dedication of all of those involved in the subject areas to be discussed will enable further achievements to be made.

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Abstract  

Radioactivity has been known for more than a hundred years. Nuclear data compilations through nuclide charts began in the 1920s with the work of Soddy, and were later rationalized in the Karlsruher Nuklidkarte. For 50 years, it has depicted the status of our nuclear knowledge in an easy reading form. It was born as an educational and scientific tool that gives access to the basic bricks that the nuclear Physics community needs to build the physics knowledge at the femtometer (10−15 m) level. Nuclide data is a bridge between research and development. On the one hand, the nucleus can be regarded as a vast laboratory with, the possibility to test from fundamental concepts of the Standard Model to the genesis of the elements in the Universe. On the other hand, this data is also leading to applications in many areas of everyday life such as health care or environmental monitoring.

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Abstract  

IMS-detectors are using beta-sources like tritium or nickel-63. This detection principle uses fast ion-molecular reactions between air cluster ions, produced by beta ionization and the analyte. The system works at normal pressure, the very high sensitivity and selectivity is used widely in industry, research, medicine and environmental control. In the last few years especially, small tritium sources were reduced to a level of some 50 MBq, which is 20 times less than the exemption levels for these sources. One of the handicaps of that technology is the problem of cross sensitivities. To overcome these problems a special GC-column of 1 m length has been included into the gas inlet and mixtures of compounds get separated by their retention times before entering the drift sensor. By means of that method a new analytical quality of IMS is arrived. The application of these analytical devices got a spin off in the last year. The main applications being discussed are as follows: (1) anti terror systems in buildings and facilities, (2) working place monitoring in chemical industry, (3) microelectronics: HF, HCl, Cl2, NMP, NH3, NO2, SO2, (4) environment: NH3, HCN, HCl, CH2O, organic compounds, SO2, NO2, (5) gas and petrol: gas-carottage, H2S, mercaptans, (6) household, furniture: solvents, clue, organic vapour from furniture, and (7) health care: diagnostics of various diseases.

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Abstract  

Indium(III) in small doses stimulates the metabolism of human beings. Its compounds are regarded toxic as it damages the heart, kidney and liver and it may also be teratogenic. As an established infection-imaging modality, nuclear medicine plays a vital health-care role in the diagnosis and subsequent effective treatment of this condition. Several techniques in nuclear medicine significantly aid infection diagnosis, including imaging with 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime, 99mTc-stannous fluoride colloid labeled leukocytes, 67Ga-citrate and 111In-oxine. In the present investigation a rapid and selective method for the extraction of In(III) using 114mIn as a tracer has been developed. The extractant, quinaldic acid has been used for the extraction of In(III) from alkaline medium into isoamyl alcohol. The extractability of In(III) was studied as a function of pH, equilibration period, effect of diluents and diverse ions. The substoichiometric method of extraction for determining the composition of the complex has also been established. The extracted In(III) from the organic phase could be stripped into the aqueous phase using 3N hydrochloric acid. The results obtained were reproducible.

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Abstract  

Nutritional-physiological research of near past decades had established the real nutritional value of fats and oils. In the former theory the nutritional value of fats and oils is influenced mainly by the rate of saturated/unsaturated fats. It was ruled out, and positive, inert or risk physiological effect of every single fatty acid had been established. The health-care effect of omega-3 fatty acid mainly by the favourable (<3:1) rate of omega-6/omega-3 was established, as inert was concerned the saturated C16 fatty acid and the maximal amount of trans-fatty acids carrying health risk in fats was legally regulated in some countries. These nutritional-physiological requirements were mainly fulfilled by margarine producers and the elementary fats were selected in such a way that they should meet these requirements. Our method helps to the producers to quickly determine the amount of the liquid and solid fat at certain temperature and/or to adjust the technological temperature parameters. The main steps of our method are: a./ determination of cooling rate (K min–1) of the crystallizer device; b./ determination of the rate of liquid/solid fat at 10°C temperature. This value is used for the determination of the rate of fats and oils as a function of technology and required consistency firmness (spread ability); c./ determination of the temperature from the cooling curve where the crystallization of most part of the fat has finished. This value is used for the determination of outlet temperature parameter of product coming out from the crystallizer device for margarines or mixed-fat spreads with water-in-oil system.

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C.A. Newall, L.A. Anderson , and J.D. Phillipson , Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Health-Care Professionals, The Pharmaceutical Press, London, 1996

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British Pharmacopoeia, Vol. 1, Stationary Office on Behalf of Medicine and Health Care Products Regulatory Agency, London, 2007, pp. 828–829. P.S. Praveen , Int. J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 1 (2010) 317

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Livingstone Elsevier , London , 2013 [2] R. Tisserand and R. Young , Essential Oil Safety: A Guide for Health Care Professionals , 2nd edn

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