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Abstract  

The stability of Novozym® 435 in the esterification of ibuprofen using ethanol as reactant and solvent was investigated. Additionally, the surface interaction of the isomers of ibuprofen and ethanol with the biocatalyst was screened through conventional adsorption isotherms and temperature programmed surface reaction (TPSR). These investigations evidenced strong alcohol adsorption and dissolution of the biocatalyst, which explains its deactivation upon reuses in the esterification reaction.

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Four ecotypes of pomegranate fruits growing in the Salento area were characterized for their content in terms of total phenols, sugars, organic acids, anthocyanins, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. The results showed that in the fruit juice the amount of phenols ranged between 0.8–1.7 g l−1; the content in terms of simple sugars was about 140 g l−1, while the amount of citric and malic acids ranged between 1.4–13.3 and 0.8–7.7 g l−1, respectively. Seven anthocyanin pigments were found; these were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively by HPLC-DAD-MS and identified as delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, pelargonidin 3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-arabinoside. The antioxidant activity, determined as DPPH scavenger and TEAC, ranged between 17.2 and 39.1% and between 9 and 19 μmol Trolox per ml of juice, respectively. All the pomegranate juices showed an anti-inflammatory activity (measured by COX inhibitory assay) which was compared with two commercial anti-inflammatory drugs (Ibuprofen and Nimesulide).

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