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. , Homewood, IL. 842 p. Paul , P. A. , El-Allaf , S. M. , Lipps , P. E. and Madden , L. V. ( 2005 ): Relationships between incidence and severity of Fusarium head blight on winter

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. Influence of inorganic N fertilizer on plant characters, yield generation and the incidence of yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) in the field of local scented paddy cultivar Tulaipanji . Int. J. Appl. Biol. Pharmaceutical Tech . 2 : 264

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Canadian J. Plant Sci. 68 351 359 Conner, R. L., Kuzyk, A. D. (1988): Black point incidence in soft white

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Field trials were conducted in the dry (Experiment I) and wet (Experiment II) seasons of 1997 at Samaru (11°11' N, 7°38' E, 686 m above sea level) in the northern Guinea Savanna ecological zone of Nigeria to study the effects of nitrogen rates on the reaction of upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties to Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. The results indicate that FARO 48, a variety normally susceptible to Striga hermonthica, exhibited resistance. FARO 11 exhibited tolerance, while FARO 38, FARO 46 and FARO 45 exhibited susceptibility. The application of 90 and 120 kg N/ha delayed and reduced Striga emergence on the crop, induced a low crop reaction score and produced grain yields that were the maximum or significantly higher than the least. No significant differences in Striga infestation were observed between nitrogen rates of 30-120 kg N/ha. The significant interaction between upland rice varieties and nitrogen rates indicates that the susceptible varieties require higher rates of nitrogen to ameliorate the effect of Striga compared with the resistant varieties.

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other chronic condition, and for unknown reasons, the incidence of this disease appears to be increasing. According to the data from the US, the ratio of the recurrence is around 25% and the ratio of therapy-resistant cases of CRS is 10–15%. The European

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Fomba, S. N., Singh, N. (1991): Observations on the incidence of rice brown spot,leaf scald, and leaf smut in a tidal mangrove swamp at Rokupur, N.W. Sierra Leone. Trop. Pest Management , 37 , 349-355. Observations on the

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Njukeng, P. A. (1994): Effects of virus-free cassava clones on the incidence and severity of African Cassava Mosaic Disease. M. Sc. thesis, Dept. of Agricultural Biology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. 70 p

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Similarity indices are often used for measuring b-diversity and as the starting point of multivariate analysis. In this study, I used simulation to examine the direction and amount of bias in estimates of two similarity indices, Jaccard Coefficient (J) and incidence-based J (J^). I design a novel simulation to generate three sets of assemblages that vary in species richness, species-occurrence distributions, and b-diversity. I characterized assemblage differences with the ratio of [proportion of rare species in all shared species / proportion of rare species in all unshared species] (i.e., PR ss/PR us) and the Pearson’s correlation in the probabilities of shared species between two assemblages (i.e., share-species correlation). I found that J was subject to strong positive or negative bias, depending on PR ss/PR us. J^ was mainly subject to negative bias, which varied with share-species correlation. In both indices, bias varied substantially from one pair of assemblages to another and among datasets. The high variation in the bias across different comparisons of assemblages may compromise b-diversity estimation established at low sampling efforts based on the two indices or their variants.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Edit Nádasi, P. Gyűrűs, Márta Czakó, Judit Bene, Sz. Kosztolányi, Sz. Fazekas, P. Dömösi, and B. Melegh

Hungarians are unique among the other European populations because according to history, the ancient Magyars had come from the eastern side of the Ural Mountains and settled down in the Carpathian basin in the 9th century AD. Since variations in the human mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) are routinely used to infer the histories of different populations, we examined the distribution of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) sites of the mtDNA in apparently healthy, unrelated Hungarian subjects in order to collect data on the genetic origin of the Hungarian population. Among the 55 samples analyzed, the large majority belonged to haplogroups common in other European populations, however, three samples fulfilled the requirements of haplogroup M. Since haplogroup M is classified as a haplogroup characteristic mainly for Asian populations, the presence of haplogroup M found in approximately 5% of the total suggests that an Asian matrilineal ancestry, even if in a small incidence, can be detected among modern Hungarians.

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24 27 Tadesse T. et al.: 2001. Relative humidity around the fruit influences the mineral composition and incidence of blossom-end rot in sweet pepper fruit — The Journal of

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