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The study summarises the author’s field experience regarding the most widespread livelihood strategies among the Romanian Gabor Roma. Through a series of examples, it demonstrates how Gabor traders adapt — most of them successfully — to the new economic and social challenges that have emerged in the post-socialist transformation. The study also outlines and analyses how the politics of ethnicity is employed in their livelihood strategies. It aims to make the economic practices through which the Gabors earn their living more “visible” (thereby demystifying the process of “production”) and to counterbalance and complement the dominance of “consumption” which characterised the author’s earlier studies concerning the prestige economy of the Gabor Roma. Furthermore, the study may help to deconstruct negative ethnic stereotypes regarding the work ethic of the Roma, such as “Roma are lazy”, and, as a result, it may contribute to the destigmatisation of Roma in everyday — media and other — discourses.

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description, the following terms will be used: the first element , to refer to the first part of a discontinuous phrase, and the second element , to refer to the last part of this construction. The place of the gap will be called the intermediate area

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The author presents a historical-etymological analysis of two Russian words – kunžut ‘sesame’ and xamovnik ‘weaver’. According to her argumentation, Russian kunžut has Tokharian origin, it was borrowed from Tokharian A by Old Uygur before the 12th century. From Old Uygur, it was intermediated by Middle Mongol and Middle Kipchak to Russian. Xam, the stem of xamovnik is preserved in one of the Old Novgorodian birk barch letter from the beginning of the 14th century. It was borrowed from the Cantonese dialect of the Chinese language by West Old Turkic, and a West Old Turkic form was borrowed by Old Russian.

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Recent research on L2 acquisition has been stressing the potential of audiovisual translation as a tool for boosting foreign language competence. Whereas most studies have concentrated on subtitled input, less attention has been devoted to dubbing, which is nevertheless the main audiovisual translation modality in several countries. Being the outcome of a translation process, dubbed dialogue is subject to translation universals, including simplification, explicitation and standardisation. These strategies may contribute to the greater accessibility of dubbed vis-à-vis original, non-translated products to non-native viewers. With a view to exploring the role of dubbing in ultimately fostering second language acquisition, an empirical study on the comprehension of different types of audiovisual input by learner-viewers was designed. The study moves from the assumption that input comprehension is a necessary prerequisite for acquisition proper and compares the degree of comprehension of dubbed vs. non-translated film scenes among intermediate-level learners of L2 Italian. Quantitatively and qualitatively comparable film scenes were selected and dialogue comprehension was assessed through closed and timed questions administered after exposure to each scene. Findings show that dubbed audiovisual input results in better comprehension than non-translated film dialogue independently of viewers’ L1 and audiovisual texts’ individual features. The study thus paves the way for further research on the acquisitional impact of dubbed dialogue, especially among learners at lower proficiency levels.

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[__ 1 Mary see ]? b. This imposes a strong rule ordering: there must occur an intermediate, secondary A-bar movement to the phase edge (movement b. above) if the element moves outside of its own minimal phase. In Finnish, grammatical features [φ, pol

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members of both sets of morphemes can combine with the aux go auxiliary series to introduce intermediate temporal gradations. The near past suffix -t in (18a) marks the hammock-hanging event as having taken place between two days and several months

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(referring to negotiations and treaties) Bowen, Bowen and Dobosz (1990) ; Takeda (2009) and/or War/Peace Interpreting (defining intermediation in conflict) Baker (2006 , 2010) ; Escort Interpreting for Diplomats (referring to official visits) Weller

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‘chronologically’ ordered with respect to each other, producing multi-stage chains of derivation with intermediate representations – defining ‘derivational’ phonological theory), while representation is simply composed of unordered bundles of binary features

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countryside of Dalmatia, Venetia-Histria and Pannonia Superior (the “Danube-Adria” area) show the most mixed characteristics, therefore they probably had a transitional or intermediate variant of Vulgar Latin between the Latin of the Eastern and Southern

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