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Segmentation is one of important methods in medical images processing, particularly as it allows images to be analysed. The method used for segmentation depends on the image problem to be resolved. In this research, knee cartilage needs to be segmented to determine the level of the Osteoarthritis (OA) and for further treatment. Knee cartilage is a soft hyline sponge that is located at the end of the femur, tibia and patella bone to release friction during movement. OA is a knee cartilage problem wherein there is a thinning of the cartilage that results in a shift especially happening between femur and tibia bone causing discomfort and pain. Thinning of the knee cartilage is due to many factors such as age, body weight, genetic, accident, sport injury and extreme use such as physical work. OA can occur to a male or female, child or adult. The effects experienced by patients with OA are such as difficulty to walk, limited movement, and pain in the thin cartilage areas. Monitoring of patients' condition needs to be done to help reduce the problem and thereby enable specialists to perform the appropriate treatment. Imaging is a method used today to monitor the condition of patients with OA. Previous studies showed that MRI is a suitable method for monitoring the condition of patients with OA because of its advantages in visualising knee cartilage more clearly than other imaging methods. Thus, for segmenting the knee cartilage which as mentioned before is an important process in medical images processing, the MR images were selected based on many factors. Segmentation in this study was aimed to obtain the cartilage region to diagnose patient OA level. Various segmentation techniques have been developed by researchers in segmenting the knee cartilage region but they have been unable to segment precisely due to the thin structure of the knee cartilage, especially for patients with intermediate and severe OA. COMSeg technique was developed to segment knee cartilage, especially for those experiencing a normal and intermediate OA and try to implement it to severe OA. The development of this new technique takes into account the imaging method used, the images feature obtained so it can be suitable to process knee image and then selection of an appropriate technique to be applied to the selected images as input.

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Abstract

Considering a stiffened panel made from an elastic homogeneous and isotropic material which suffers a single localized initial geometric imperfection, assessment of the buckling limit state under in-plane uniform axial compression in the direction of stiffeners was performed. Giving a topological configuration of the stiffened plate, focus was aimed at the combined effect resulting from geometrical dimensions and localized defect characteristics. The perfect stiffened plate taken as reference and diverse imperfect stiffened plates suffering a single localized initial geometric defect of the form of a square depression were analyzed in this work. Extensive parametric finite element simulations were performed according to full factorial design of experiment tables that were built on key intervening factors. It was found that the main parameters controlling the buckling stress for the perfect plate are the plate width, then the web height and width, then finally the interaction between plate width and web height. In case of imperfect plates, the most adverse situation was obtained with the defect placed on the intermediate segments of the stiffened plate. A reduction of the buckling stress as low as 56% was reached in this situation. The main factors influencing the buckling load for the imperfect plate differ according to the defect configuration.

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available design methods of Eurocode of cold-formed section to typical cold-formed steel rectangular hollow flange beams and to improve the capacity of rectangular hollow flange beams by means of intermediate stiffener. A numerical model using ANSYS software

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or two outliers during the measurement. The right side allows for timely cutting. The switch can be used to decide whether the operator wants to remove an intermediate interval (for example: During measurement, an external effect caused a disturbance

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International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Authors: Adebayo Surajudeen Adekunle, Adekunle Akanni Adeleke, Peter Pelumi Ikubanni, Peter Olorunleke Omoniyi, Tajudeen Adelani Gbadamosi, and Jamiu Kolawole Odusote

form evenly distributed particles. Al-alloys that undergo hardening process at room temperature after a few days are called natural aging and those that undergo harden process by reheating to an intermediate temperature are called artificial aging [ 5

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weakening of the bond between cement paste and aggregate, extensive cracking and expansion. Reduced expansion of the mortar was noted with an increase in MK content (5–20%) when included in high and intermediate C 3 A content cement [ 29 ]. At higher MK

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-called intermediate sphere, where country-of-origin consciousness and financial consciousness appear [ 15 ]. Both country-of-origin and financial consciousness play an important role in self-interest and community interest. If this division is accepted, it should be

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: 6906 – 6912 . 10.1021/jf201103t Wells-Knecht , K.J. , Zyzak , D.V. , Litchfield , J.E. , Thorpe , S.R. , and Baynes , J.W. ( 1995 ). Identification of glyoxal and arabinose as intermediates in the autoxidative modification of proteins by

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Eccentrically braced frames are well known for their capacity of dissipating seismic energy by plastic hinge formation in the so called ‘link elements’, which represent the dissipative devices of the eccentrically braced frame. The link element can be short, which means it will be mainly subjected to shear forces; long being mainly subjected to bending moment or intermediate in length subjected to a combined action of shear force-bending moment. The current study is focused on the calibration of existing experimental results with numerical finite element models of steel eccentrically braced frames with short link elements and a subsequent parametrical study considering different link lengths and multiple stiffeners along the link web panel.

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The produced sugar, as the final product in sugar production technology, has to contain as low non-sucrose compounds with coloured matters as possible. Ultrafiltration and nanofiltration could be one of the solutions for a more effective separation of non-sucrose compounds from intermediate products from which sucrose directly crystallises. The separation of non-sucrose compounds by ultra- and nanofiltration is investigated on syrup solution with 40% d.m. content, which is an intermediate product in the phase of sucrose crystallisation. Further, this paper investigates variables in the ultrafiltration and nanofiltration of syrup solutions, such as variations in pore sizes of the polymer membranes, syrup temperatures, syrup flow rates and transmembrane pressures. During ultrafiltration, under the investigated conditions; permeate flux is about 10 times less than water flux (150 m-2h-1) on the first membrane and 8 times less than water flux (285 m-2h-1) on the second membrane, while the nanofiltration permeate flux is 15 times less than water flux (320 m-2h-1). The permeate flux decreases due to the adsorption of non-sucrose compounds by the filter membranes and the resultant increase in resistance to mass transfer. The colour content is about 58% lower by ultrafiltration using membranes. There is no great difference in colour separation between the used ultrafiltration membranes with different pore sizes. Nanofiltration was shown to separate 76% of coloured matter from syrup. In all the examined cases, permeate turbidity could be reduced by 75-80%, according to feed.

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