György (George) Bocskay (†1575) was a member of a well-known Hungarian noble family. He was capable to adapt himself to the expectations of the Viennese court of the Habsburg Monarchy to build a significant career at the Hungarian Royal Chancellery as royal court secretary, royal councillor and calligrapher. He decorated various writing model books and charters for the Habsburg rulers as well as several letters of arms for Hungarian noblemen. However it is less known that the calligrapher made sepulchral inscriptions in stone as well applying a new technique of his time, the acid-etching. Emperor Ferdinand I commissioned him to prepare the Square Capitals for the marble cenotaph of Emperor Maximilian I in Innsbruck. Additionally, he used similar letters to inscribe the sepulchral monument of the highest ranking official of the Hungarian Kingdom, the Palatine Tamás Nádasdy and his wife, Orsolya Kanizsay in Léka (Lockenhaus).
After the Treaty of Passau (1552) the claim was established that after Emperor Charles V the member of the Austrian line of the Habsburg dynasty, Ferdinand I could have imperial power. The revival of the antiquity significantly influenced the rebuilding of his main residence, the Hofburg, the development of the Roman lapidaries and collections of antiquities at his court (Hermes Schallauzer, Wolfgang Lazius, Ferdinand I), and the style of festive decorations and artworks all’antica he commissioned during this era.
In 1562 Bocskay dedicated a writing model book to Ferdinand I in order to be commissioned to prepare the inscriptions of the sepulchral monument of Emperor Maximilian I. The manuscript included several writing samples in Square Capitals imitating the epigraphic monuments of the ancient Romans. Later he worked on the acid-etched and gilded inscriptions in Vienna in 1563–1568 according to the archival sources. He prepared inscribed marble plates for 24 marble reliefs of the cenotaph representing scenes of the life of Maximilian I as well as 18 plates of the sepulchral inscription on the frieze. The Latin texts were compiled by the vice-chancellor of Ferdinand I, Georg Sigmund Seld.
Bocskay was accommodated in the house of the Nádasdy family in Vienna. He probably equipped a workshop for the process there. He also prepared three more inscribed limestone plates for the sepulchral monument of the already mentioned Tamás Nádasdy and Orsolya Kanizsay. The marble cenotaph was erected in 1566 in the castle of Léka where the Palatine and later his wife were buried. The monument was transferred to the new family crypt of the Augustine monastery of Léka in the 17th century.
Authors:Katalin T. Biró, Judit Regenye, Sándor Puszta, and Edit Thamóné Bozsó
Nagytevel határában, a Tevel-hegyen található Magyarország egyetlen, szoros értelemben véve tűzkőnek nevezhető kova nyersanyaga. A felső kréta korú mészkőben, amelyet a község határában egy modern kőbánya tár fel, gyakran 20–30 cm nagyságú tűzkő gumók figyelhetők meg. A környéken több alkalommal gyűjtöttek megmunkált kovaszilánkokat. A területen 2005 és 2008 között feltárásokat végeztünk a Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum és a Veszprém Megyei Múzeumok Igazgatóságának együttműködésében. Az ásatás célja a feltételezhető őskori kovabánya azonosítása és feltárása volt. Összesen 22 bányaobjektumot figyeltünk meg, többségében sekély kitermelő gödröket. A bánya lehetséges lokalizálása, illetve behatárolása céljából két alkalommal geofizikai méréseket is végeztünk. A jelenségek keltezését szórványos kerámialeletek mellett optikai lumineszcens kormeghatározással és a régészeti elterjedési adatok értelmezésével kíséreltük meg.
The research was triggered off by the documentation of the building history of the mausoleum of the Brüll family in the neolog Jewish cemetery in Kozma street, Budapest. The revived antique, in ante temple style mausoleum erected over a crypt was completed in 1902 as the joint work of architect Kálmán Gerster and sculptor Alajos Stróbl. The interior of the cell is adorned with a fine floral mosaic composition (cartoon by Ferenc Lohr).
At Békás in Veszprém county the sepulchral monument of the founder of the Society of Hungarian Engineers and Architects was unveiled in the Békássy–Hollán mausoleum in 1903. The periodical Művészet reported that the frescoes were painted by Dezső Kölber after cartoons by Károly Lotz. Documents in the Archives of the Veszprém Archiepiscopacy and Collegiate Chapter reveal that the chapel built in revival gothic style was consecrated on the day of the Sacred Name of the Virgin, on 12 September 1869, so that masses could be celebrated for the salvation of the departed souls. The church demanded that the builders provide guarantees for the survival of the chapel “until the end of time”. The architect’s name is not put down, but the article of 1903 expressly names Ybl as the planner of the funerary chapel, which has not been listed in his oeuvre so far.
During an assessment of art historical values we came across the ruins of the Ágoston–Kacskovics family’s mausoleum on the edge of Balatonboglár, in Szőlőskislak. Until 1993 the diocese of Veszprém also included Somogy County. The remains of the archaizing building displays several remarkable elements. One is the set of wall-lining bricks stamped with the initials LNJ, which are undoubtedly from the brick-yard of the architect Ödön Lechner’s family in Kőbánya. The other is a glazed, ribbed-surface ornamental brick type arranged around the red triangular limestone symbolizing the eye of God in the pediment. Earlier, this brick type was known on the St. Ladislaus church in Kőbánya and the façades of the Museum of Applied Arts (1896) both planned by Lechner. The floor pavers – produced by Wienerberger – were acquired in Vienna. It is again the obligation for maintenance in good condition that accounts for ample documents kept in the Archiepiscopal Library, which reveal that the crypt was consecrated in 1883, the chapel in 1884, on the feast day of Saint Ignatius Loyola. The erection of the chapel might have been related in connection with the re-burial here of landowner Ignácz Kacskovics, lord lieutenant of the county (and maybe with the change of the manorial centre). The use of the Lechner “design” bricks here precedes the well-known examples by a decade. The building was designed by József Áoston of Kisjóka, who qualified as an engineer from the Technical University of Budapest in 1875.
In the central cemetery of Pécs there are two similar historicizing family mausoleums close to each other. The classicizing monuments also displaying motifs of the Jugendstil were built in 1909 (and later?) from the terracotta elements of the Zsolnay Factory of Pécs. The mausoleum of the Nagy family who played an important role in the life of the city is still privately owned. The other one underwent a strange metamorphosis in 1963, as it was not redeemed again. The party committee of the city decided to convert it into a labour movement pantheon, and had the cross surrounded by palm branches in the pediment replaced by the red star. (The classicist character suited the socialist realist ideal of the fifties.) Their conservation in their current form is justified.
The cathedral “Esztergom II”. The construction of the St. Adalbert’s Cathedral in the twelfth century with an Excurse: To the chronology of the Early Gothic in the middle of the Kingdom as witneßsed by the Cistercian Abbey of Kerc (Cǎrţa, Kerz, RO), Transylvania. Among at least 4 construction periods of the medieval Cathedral (not counting additional buildings) the second building cannot be dated by written sources and is only witnessed by its High Romanesque and Early Gothic stone sculpture. As in the late seventeenth and in the eighteenth century stone elements from the ruins of the Cistercian Abbey of Pilis were used as building material in Esztergom and later also medieval stone sculptures from the region (mainly from the provostry in Dömös) entered in the collection of the Esztergom Castle. The distinction among these related monuments has in recent times also determined our concept of reconstruction of the Esztergom Cathedral. This reconstruction can be based on a few authentic landscapes, on a series of surveys drawn by military engineers and a description of the ruins before their final demolition. The early book by J. B. Máthes (1827) also contains a detailed ground plan of the St. Adalbert Church – a survey drawing from the early eighteenth century with possible traces of an ideal reconstruction. In recent times more efforts were spent to hypotheses concerning the building I of St. Adalbert’s than to the second construction, the ruins of which were still standing by the middle of the eighteenth century. It was a basilical building originally with an apse (rebuilt as a polygonal choir in the fourteenth century) between two towers in the East. The levels of the oriental part of the church are well documented: as the canons’ choir in the 3 east bays of the nave was elevated by 2 steps over the aisles, the choir square with the main apse was higher than the chorus minor. As the altar of the Virgin Mary in front of the choir was dedicated in 1156, the eastern parts of the building together with several parts of the nave can be dated about this time. The sculptures belonging to this building are classicizing (Corinthian and composite) capitals, partly with figurative elements, going back to figurative capitals from Dömös and related to classicizing details from the construction of the first half of the twelfth century of the royal priory in Óbuda. It seems that the capitals have belonged to a construction both with composed piers and with columns – perhaps in a form of alternation. The nave was not vaulted until the fourteenth century, but vaulting in choir and also in the aisles seems probable. The western part of the nave was built with cross-shaped piers observed by an eighteenth century witness of the ruins. Capitals with acanthus leaves and also with elements of chapiteaux à crochet appear as typical elements of this style also present in the inferior room of the annex to the donjon of the royal Palace, which was built presumably in the 1180’s. The role of North-Italian (magistri campionesi and also Antelami) models in the transmission of stylistic elements of French Early Gothic mixed with Italian traditions has received a strong accent mainly in the art-historical literature of the last decades. The author indicates a very strong analogy of this orientation in Esztergom with the late twelfth century reconstruction of the Salzburg Cathedral of Archbishop Konrad III, the crypt of which was dedicated in 1219. The use of local red marbles – together with the polychromy of different stones – on a series of decorative works following the models of the Salzburg Cathedral in the first half of the thirteenth century is comparable to Esztergom. Recent research – supported both by analysis of sources, technical observations and also geological investigation – have proved that large surfaces of the Esztergom Cathedral were covered with red limestone plates, for obtaining a noble effect. The supposed chronology of Esztergom can be supported by a new chronology of the Transylvanian Cistercian Abbey of Kerc, where the earliest parts of the building seem to correspond to models in Esztergom and Pilisszentkereszt about the hypothetical foundation year 1202. The relationship of this workshop to the central region of the country found its continuation about 1220 as on Kerc monastery appear influences of later works of the same circle (Óbuda, royal palace, cathedral Kalocsa II) and elements of the South German Early Gothic (Magdeburg, Walkenried, Maulbronn) as well. The parish church in Szászsebes (Mühlbach, Sebeş, RO) can be considered as a parallel to Kerc Abbey. Among local followers of Kerc, in Brassó (St. Barthelemys’ Kronstadt, Braş ov, RO), and Halmágy (Holmwegen, Halmăgiu, RO) can be identified decorative and also figurative forms originating from Salzburg, maybe through the intermediary of Kalocsa. It seems, that up to the first third of the thirteenth century the model of Kerc is still valid for provincialized followers as Prázsmár (Tartlau, Prejmer, RO) and Szék (Sic, RO). The latest phase of its influence shows a modernisation following the cathedral of Gyulafehérvár (Weiβenburg, Karlsstadt, Alba Iulia, RO).
. 6 It is a fragment of a limestone funerary stela, measuring (95)×(40)×28 cm. It was originally the upper left part of a monument (viewed from its front), and its right side and bottom part is missing. The preserved part is broken into two pieces. The
carved piece of limestone with rounded corners was found in the centre in a vertical position. Under it, a large, carved sandstone with semicircular end lay horizontally indicating the grave. The sides of the large tombstone were carved smooth, its bottom
Twenty Roman Age home-made sherds from Central Italian San Potito locality were studied by petrographic microscopic method. The ceramics were divided into five petrographic groups on the basis of their composition and structural-textural features. Two groups of the ceramics were tempered with clasts of alkaline volcanic origin, which seem to originate from Central-Italian volcanic territory components. The ceramics belonging to the other three groups contained large amounts of limestone and carbonatic fossils, the origin of the raw material was a marine clayish sediment, perhaps flysch.
The massive red limestone of Tardos-Süttő popularly called red marble for its elegant looks both in the Middle Ages and today was revived as a representative building material (after the beginnings in the 12–13th centuries) by the lapidaries coming from Italy during King Matthias' reign. For the rebuilding of the Royal Palace in Buda in renaissance style, this material was used in large quantities for the moulded stone structures in addition to Buda marl (and to a far lesser extent freshwater limestone and rough stone). The 650 or so red marble carved fragments unearthed in Buda have been inventoried again in recent years within the Medium Regni program of the Széchenyi Plan. By examining each fragment in the lapidaria, we corrected and revised the manuscript formal-typological catalogue made by Emese Nagy in the 1990s. To introduce the work completed, we present a part of the catalogue and explicate a special question of reconstruction, the type of cross window with pilaster surrounds, shedding new light on certain assumptions maintained by the professional community.
Authors:András Markó, Alfréd Dulai, and Viola Dobosi
During the excavations of the Upper Palaeolithic site at Mogyorósbánya several non-utilitarian artefacts were found. Beside the earlier published piece of fossil resin (amber) and lumps of red ochre, more than one hundred Palaeogene and Neogene fossil molluscs, large foraminifers, corals and trace fossils from at least three different geological formations, as well as numerous fragments of phyllite were documented.
Pebbles of this soft shale were most probably collected from the alluvium of the Danube river. The majority of the pieces show clear traces of scraping and along the periphery of the largest artefact rhythmic incisions are visible. Even if this piece is not a ready-made object, it can be compared to the limestone and sandstone pebbles found on the Epigravettian site of Pilismarót-Pálrét. Another interesting artefact of unknown function is a carefully shaped but strongly fragmented piece with sharp edge.
Fossils of the Eocene Epoch were easily accessible in the region of Mogyorósbánya, while the nearest fossiliferous outcrops of the Oligocene and Pannonian sediments are found 15–17 km in south-eastern direction from the site.
Few gastropod shells show unambiguous traces of human modification. Typically, among the 16 Melanopsis fossils found in a single square meter only three pieces were manufactured. On the other hand, the majority of the Dentalium and worm tube fragments were cut and their surfaces show intense rounding and shine.
The not modified Nummulites, corals and large internal casts of gastropods were most probably collected by Prehistoric humans because of their unusual form. This interesting group of the Mogyorósbánya artefacts and are compared to the fossils published from the Pilisszántó I rockshelter and to the not modified fossils from Moravia and Romania.
Authors:Béla Rácz, György Szakmány, and Katalin T. Biró
On the territory Transcarpathian Ukraine, about 100 Palaeolithic localities are known up to our days. Most of them are surface finds. In spite of the rich archaeological heritage, the elaboration of the material, especially its petroarchaeological evaluation supported by professional scientific analytical methods, is in the initial phase as yet. The aim of the present study is to supply information on the lithic raw materials of the Palaeolithic settlements in Transcarpathian Ukraine, the detailed survey and description of the primary raw materials, their identification, description and terminology, as well as the outlining of the local raw material provinces and study of the distribution of the raw materials on archaeological sites.
In the archaeological literature of Transcarpathian Ukraine, lithic raw materials are still described under incorrect petrographical terms. For example, for the raw material of Korolevo Palaeolithic site is, correctly speaking, hyaline dacite, and the “flints” of Beregovo region are indeed rocks of volcanic origin which have undergone metasomatic processes. Field survey for collecting geological samples localized 19 different raw material sources all of which yielded hard rocks with conchoidal fracture that are suitable for tool making with knapping.
Out of the 19 raw material types 11 were actually found in archaeological assemblages of the studied area. The most popular raw materials of Transcarpathian Ukraine are the Korolevo hyaline dacite, Rokosovo obsidian, (Carpathian 3 type) and siliceous rhyolite tuff varieties (type I and II), siliceous tuffite (type I and II), siliceous and opalised rhyolite (type I and II) from the Beregovo Hills area, as well as silicified sandstone (type II) and the siliceous argillite. Certain types of potential raw materials were found in archaeological assemblages as yet. These are the Kriva limno-chalcedonite and limnoopalite, radiolarite of Svalyava type I, II and III, the siliceous limestone of Svalyava and Priborzhavske, and the hornfels of Suskovo.
The paper also points out patterns in lithic raw material circulation in the prehistoric period of Transcarpathia. In the Palaeolithic, the settlement system and location of sites was largely dependent on the lithic sources. Altogether 9 types of rocks played important role: Korolevo hyaline dacite, the Carpathian 3 type obsidian from Rokosovo, 6 types of metasomatites of Beregovo Hills, and the silicified sandstone (type II). Upper Palaeolithic communities settled close to the outcrops of primary and secondary geological positions and this phenomenon is observable at each important Palaeolithic settlement.
On the basis of the principal raw material circulation of the Palaeolithic three territorial groups have been formulated. These are named after the most abundant and used rock types of the given region. Three raw material regions are recognized in Transcarpathia: volcanic, metasomatic, and sedimentary. Furthermore, sub-regions were also established in the volcanic region (Rokosovo-Maliy Rakovets and Korolevo-Veryatsa sub-regions) and in the metasomatic region (Beregovo, Muzhiyevo and Bene- Kvasovo sub-regions).