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Nazionale di Požarevac per avermi aiutato nel reperimento delle foto dei pezzi conservati nel loro museo. La mia gratitudine ADD va anche alla prof. Jelena Mrgić, della Facoltà di Filosofia a Belgrado, speciale per aver realizzato la mappa del limes della

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The inhabitants of the steppes around the Black Sea and the nearby areas of the wooded steppe must be recognised as having played a special role in the events that occurred during the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages. These populations were known not only by their peculiar living conditions but also various cultural models, even though the pastoral nature of their economy and the continuous movements related to it were of fundamental importance. The steppe was also an extensive link that facilitated contacts with the nomads present beyond the southern course of the Volga and Ural rivers, in the vast territories of the Central Asian zones up to the border with China. Toward the end of Late Antiquity, the ethnic make-up of the inhabitants of those territories changed. The Indo-European nomads were replaced by the groups of Turks-Mongols that arrived in subsequent waves from the Asian steppes. These included the Huns, who in 375 had destroyed the state of the Goths on the Black Sea and, having settled after 420 in the woods and plains crossed by the river Tisza, continued to go beyond the Pannonian limes to strike the areas closer to the border. The intensity of these incursions increased after 434 whenAttila unified the nomadic tribes under his command, creating a vast empire of the steppe whose centre was located between the Tisza and the middle region of the Danube. The Huns also cooperated with the subjugated communities, first and foremost the rest of the Goths, Gepids and other Germans who had remained in their residential areas, but also theAlani and the Jazigs. It was only after the defeat of 451 on the Catalaunian Plains, the failed Italian expedition of 452 and the sudden death of Attila in 453 that the Hun Empire completely fell apart. The final blow was struck on the Nedao River in southern Pannonia by the forces united under the command of the Gepids in 454 or 455. What triggered a new shift of Germanic populations, considered the final phase of the period of the “Great Migrations” of peoples, was the ingress of the Langobards into Italy in 568. This alliance of Germanic tribes had appeared at the beginning of the 6 th century on the shores of the Danube and, taking full advantage of the collapse of that sector of the limes in 526, began to occupy Pannonia. In the face of the danger represented by the Avars, and the new nomads who began to occupy the entire plain crossed by the Tisza, the Langobards decided to abandon Pannonia, leaving it to the Avars on the basis of a peace treaty.

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. Kuzsinszky B. 1932 A gázgyári római fazekastelep Aquincumban (Das große römische Töpferviertel in Aquincum). BudRég XI, 5–384. Lőrincz, B. 1977 Pannonische Stempelziegel I.: Limes-Strecke Annamatia–Ad Statuas. DissArch II, 5

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Imperiums an der unteren Donau während des 5.–6. Jhs. Studia Danubiana, Pars Romaniae, Series Symposia I. Bucharest, 95–113. Dyczek, P. 2008 The Lower Danube Limes in Bulgaria, Frontiers of the Roman Empire. Warsawa

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wirtschaftliche Entwicklung von Budafelhévíz). TBM 16, 85–180. Kubinyi F. 1861 Margitsziget műemlékei. AK 2, 1–25. Kurucz J. 1914 Római nyomok a pannoniai Duna-limes balpartján. Komárom

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A magyarországi gemmaleletek feldolgozása során az a határozott sajátosság rajzolódott ki, hogy a legfontosabb lelőhelyek Északkelet-Pannoniában, a limes mentén találhatók, a következő központokban: Brigetio, Aquincum, Intercisa. A belső területekről csupán Gorsium emelkedik ki jelentősebb leletmennyiséggel. Bár egymástól nem távoli településekről van szó, mégis jelentős különbségek figyelhetők meg a gemmák időbeli megoszlásában, az ábrázolások tematikájában és a kivitelezés színvonalában. E különbségek meghatározása és lehetséges okaik megállapítása összegzés formájában olvasható az alábbiakban. A teljes leletanyagot tartalmazó katalógusok és elemzések egy része – többnyire idegen nyelven – már megjelent, más részük az összehasonlító vizsgálatokkal együtt egyelőre csak kéziratban hozzáférhető.

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. Gerecze P. 1906 A műemlékek helyrajzi jegyzéke és irodalma. Magyarország műemlékei II. Budapest. Groller, M. von 1903 Der römische Limes in Österreich 4. Wien. Györffy Gy. 1998 Az Árpád

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. Mráv , Zsolt 2005 Quadian Policy of Valentinian I and the Never-finished Late Roman Fortress at Göd-Bócsújtelep . In: Visy , Zs. (ed.): Limes XIX. Proceedings of the XIXth International Congress of Roman Frontier

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besonderer Meilenstein aus Savaria. Savaria (Szombathely) 23/3 , 101 – 113 . K ovács , P éter 1999 Vicus és castellum kapcsolata az alsó-pannoniai limes mentén

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at Ács-Vaspuszta (Hungary) on the Danubian Limes. BAR-IS Oxford. The Román Fort at Ács-Vaspuszta (Hungary) on the Danubian Limes Bet

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