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In this research, starch and maltose content were determined by using the HPLC method for different dent maize hybrids, grown in Tekirdağ ecological conditions. Experimental materials were obtained from Tekirdağ Faculty of Agricultural Field Crops Department. The starch and maltose content of the thirty-five selected maize varieties were studied. Starch contents of OSSK 644 (84.73%), Karaçay (84.39%) and AG 9242 (84.09%) were found to be higher than the other varieties. The lowest starch content (45.02%) was obtained from variety DK-647. The maltose content of maize hybrids was varied from 0.83% (Pegaso) to 2.71% (AG 9229). Negative and insignificantly correlation was obtained between starch and maltose content (r 2 −0.150).

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545 550 Duplay, P., Bedouelle, H., Fowler, A., Zabin, I., Saurin, W., Hofnung, M. 1984. Sequences of the malE gene and of its product. The Maltose-Binding Protein of

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An efficient in vitro plant regeneration system was established for elite, recalcitrant Malaysian indica rice, Oryza sativa L. CV. MR 219 using mature seeds as explant on Murashige and Skoog and Chu N6 media containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and kinetin either alone or in different combinations. L-proline, casein hydrolysate and L-glutamine were added to callus induction media for enhancement of embryogenic callus induction. The highest frequency of friable callus induction (84%) was observed in N6 medium containing 2.5 mg l −1 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, 0.2 mg l −1 kinetin, 2.5 mg l −1 L-proline, 300 mg l −1 casein hydrolysate, 20 mg l −1 L-glutamine and 30 g l −1 sucrose under culture in continuous lighting conditions. The maximum regeneration frequency (71%) was observed, when 30-day-old N6 friable calli were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 3 mg l −1 6-benzyl aminopurine, 1 mg l −1 naphthalene acetic acid, 2.5 mg l −1 L-proline, 300 mg l −1 casein hydrolysate and 3% maltose. Developed shoots were rooted in half strength MS medium supplemented with 2% sucrose and were successfully transplanted to soil with 95% survival. This protocol may be used for other recalcitrant indica rice genotypes and to transfer desirable genes in to Malaysian indica rice cultivar MR219 for crop improvement.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Letitia Oprean, Enikő Gaspar, Ecaterina Lengyel, and V. Cristea

5 Ernandes, J., Williams, J., Russell, I., Stewart, G. (1995) Effect of yeast adaptation to maltose utilization on sugar uptake during the fermentation of brewer's wort. J. Instit. 99 , 67

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, W. J. (1969) Enzymatic determination of glucose in the presence of maltose. Anal. Biochem. 30 , 467-470. Enzymatic determination of glucose in the presence of maltose Anal. Biochem

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Food Science 2000 Orak H.H. (2006): Determination of starch and maltose content in some hybrid maize varieties by using

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Large numbers of genetically stable, homozygous plants are needed for classical and molecular breeding programmes. In vitro anther culture has proved to be a useful tool for haploid/doubled haploid (DH) induction in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) for more than twenty years. The present paper reports on a great improvement in the in vitro haploid induction and genome duplication methods routinely used for resistance breeding in sweet and spice peppers by two Hungarian research institutions, the Agricultural Biotechnology Center in Gödöllő and the Budapest Research Unit of the Vegetable Crops Research Institute. As a result of the colchicine-stimulated early genome induction method, the critically low (<0.1%) regeneration frequency of spice pepper types became ten times greater, reaching a value of around 1.0%, though this was still considerably lower than that achieved in pepper varieties for fresh consumption (5-10%). Moreover, the ratio of useful doubled haploids was far higher (H:DH = 1:2 or 1:4) in some cases after colchicine treatment than that of untreated control plants (H:DH = 2:1 or 3:1, depending on the genotype). An efficient method with good reproducibility, requiring less manual work, was elaborated for the in vitro genome duplication of pepper haploid regenerants using colchicine. When the haploid induction ability of plants conventionally cultured in the greenhouse was compared to that of plants raised under artificial conditions in phytotron chambers (satisfactory day and night temperatures, illumination, humidity), the responsiveness of the latter microspores (ratio of plant regeneration) was found to be almost twice as high. The application of 3% maltose for six days at 35°C resulted in a 1.45% increase in the ratio of responding anthers and a 0.34% increase in plant regeneration, averaged over all the variety types. Phenosafranin staining was used for the analysis of microspore viability. The reduction in viability during the induction period proved to be less pronounced in lines with better androgenetic responses than in those with poorer responsiveness.

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The use of mature embryos as explants to initiate cultures is a best alternative to save time and costs, especially for producing somatic embryos for genetic transformation of durum wheat. However, plantlets regeneration from cultures derived from matured embryos is usually low. In this study, we tested matured embryos as explants from eight Moroccan durum wheat varieties (‘Irden’, ‘Marzak’, ‘Kyperounda’, ‘Isly’, ‘Amria’, ‘Karim’, ‘Marouane’ and ‘Tomouh’) to define suitable culture media for obtaining high frequencies of somatic embryogenesis and in vitro plantlets regeneration. For this purpose, we tested five induction and maintenance media (M1 to M5) based on MS media (macro and oligo-elements) which differed with respect to concentrations of plant hormones (2,4-D and BA), vitamins, sucrose, maltose, L-asparagine, and solidifying agents. All tested media induced embryogenic callus for the varieties and regenerate plantlets. However, a significant effect of variety, medium and variety × medium interaction were observed for callus induction and regeneration. Average callus growth as measured by relative fresh weight growth rate (RFWGR) across different media was the highest for ‘Amria’ (7215.4%) and the lowest for ‘Tomouh’ (2088.2%). M1 (2 mg/L 2,4-D) and M5 (3 mg/L 2,4-D) media gave highest RFWGR(6892.1% and 6332%, respectively) and M3 (1 mg/L 2,4-D) was the lowest (3708.8%), across different varieties. However, the embryogenic callus from M3 media regenerated the highest percentage of plantlet, upon transfer to regeneration medium, for most of the varieties. For the varieties ‘Marouane’, ‘Kyperounda’, ‘Marzak’, ‘Karim’, and ‘Tomouh’, the favourable medium was M3, whereas, for ‘Isly’, ‘Irden’ and ‘Amria’, both M2 (2.5 mg/L BA and 2.5 mg/L 2,4-D) and M3 were the favourable media for embryogenic callus induction. In this study, for the first time, favourable media for induction and regeneration from mature embryo of Moroccan durum wheat varieties were identified. These media will be used for callus induction and genetic transformation.

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Tiwari, S., Rahimbaves, I. (1992): Comparison of glucose, sucrose and maltose for Hordeum vulgare L. isolated microspore culture using different methods. Indian J. Exp. Biol. , 30 , 624

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and maltose concentration on in vitro androgenesis of hexaploid winter triticale and wheat. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 39 :49–53. Hayes P.M. Effect of induction medium pH

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