based on democracy and free market economics in each of the republics of the former Yugoslavia during the second half of 1990s and even later ( Prica 2007 :35). 1 Establishing democracy and marketeconomies was interlinked with a shift in the general
Is the text of a lecture, delivered by the author, acting as president of the Commission for Art History of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences on a conference of art historians in November 2012. This preliminary text of the official report, which was submitted to and discussed by the Class for Philosophical and Historical Sciences of the Hungarian Academy, is a summary from the personal point of view of the author. It is focused mainly on three points of the analysis of the evolution of art history in the one and a half decades between 1996 and 2011. 1) The criteria of the valuation of scientific activities in art history mainly prefer classical art history and its publication forms in the same time as scientific (but not published) activities of museum keepers and curators as well as publications of curators and art critics not corresponding to scientific publication criteria do not acknowledged enough. 2) There is a remarkable swift in the character of publications in the overlooked period: manuals, lexica and scientific catalogues of collections — all team works — became rarer and monographic studies, exhibition catalogues as well as individual works are dominating. 3) The period between 1996 and 2011 bears the traits of a transitional period in the historiography of art. The changes were determined by the introduction of market economy and its impact in Hungary, by the changing of finances of art historical research and the changes of the institutions — from the Universities (“Bologna-system”) through the transformation of the Research Institute of Art History of the Academy of Sciences to the fusion of leading Art Museums of the Country and the dissolution of the National Office of the Cultural Heritage. So, in course of official measures of the year 2012 the whole institutional background of the Hungarian art history was transformed.
Almost each of the political forces and the great majority of the public saw no alternative to Euro-Atlantic integration, that is, accession to NATO and the EC (after 1992 the EU) when Hungary regained its independence in 1990. Membership in both organizations had a number of internal and external implications too. Budapest had to introduce sweeping reforms in practically all walks of life. Thus, for instance, NATO-membership required the establishment of a parliamentary democracy, a functioning market economy, and the observance of civil and human rights. At the same time, Hungary had to sign so-called basic treaties with three of its neighbors in which it again committed itself to peaceful relations and the renunciation of any attempt to regain territories it had lost to the countries affected after the First and the Second World Wars. EU-membership needed even more extensive restructuring of the various Hungarian institutions from law enforcement through finances to social services. In addition, Budapest expected that one of the major dilemmas of reconciling the so-called “Hungarian-Hungarian” question with the “good neighbor” policy would be settled within the framework of European integration. The expectations on behalf of the two sides have only been partially realized yet. Thus, Hungary consistently spends much less on defense than the required level within the Atlantic Alliance; Budapest has been trying to compensate with a relative prominent presence in foreign missions. As for the EU, the threat of a “second class membership” has not disappeared; in fact, after the beginning of the economic recession in 2008 it has even become a more realistic perspective; in reality, Hungary has had to accept a relative loss of power even in Central and Eastern Europe. However, Hungary has a vested interest in a “Strong Europe” (this was the official slogan of Hungary’s EU-Presidency during the first six months of 2011) in which “more Europe” should not exclude the country’s closer relations with other regions in the world.
the company (Schlachta 2014:93–100).
19 After the regime change in 1989, the restructuring of rural areas began as a result of the establishment of a liberal marketeconomy and the processes of restitution and privatization. In the agricultural