The Vienna Hours, illuminated by the artist known as the “Master of Mary of Burgundy”, was originally commissioned by Margaret of York. The later parts of the manuscript commemorate the love and marriage between Mary of Burgundy and Maximilian of Habsburg, and their (newborn or expected) child.
The miniatures and texts in question convey the same idea expressed on several occasions by the official historian, Jean Molinet: in the Burgundian court, the duchess was venerated as the Virgin Mary (and in consequence of this, Maximilian – and Philip – came to be revered as the Saviour, and Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, as the Father). Underlying the tendency to identify Mary of Burgundy with the Virgin Mary was the situation of Burgundy and its heiress, which was understood by means of salvation-historical analogies. In the book of hours, the figures of the two Marys are conflated several times in a variety of ways (fols. 14v, 19v, 43v, 94v, 99v). The hymn in praise of the heavenly joys of the Virgin Mary, which is organically related to the frontispiece image, is thus (also) a chanted sequence for the eternal beatitude of the young bride. The painter conjured up the imaginary figure of Maximilian in the foreground of the two miniatures with window scenes, while the jewels in the border around the image of the Crucifixion scene allude to Margaret of York. These miniatures have a playful tone (as evidenced by the role-swapping between the Marys, the book-within-a-book, picture-within-a-picture, vision-within-a-vision, trompe l’oeil solutions, and the complex dialogue between objects, materials and locations).
There are a number of factors supporting the argument that the miniatures, hitherto attributed to the Master of Mary of Burgundy, were illuminated by Hugo van der Goes, who was a resident of the Red Cloister at the time, and that he was commissioned by the Austrian Archduke. The date of 1478 is rendered likely by stylistic and biographical factors (the paintings Hugo made in the cloister, both before and after, his later illness, the visit of Maximilian, the birth of Philip the Handsome). It was also at this time that Jean Molinet wrote Le Chappellet des dames, which makes multiple comparisons between the duchess and the Virgin Mary, and whose imagery is often echoed in the folios of the Vienna Hours. It is possible that the first (co-)owner of the manuscript was Maximilian of Habsburg.
Authors:Marialucia Giacco and Chiara Maria Marchetti
This paper is aimed to analyze several different aspects of the cult of Hera in Magna Graecia – from the Archaic to the Hellenistic period – where the goddess was already worshipped since the foundation of most ancient colonies in southern Italy. By examination both of the ancient Greek sources and the archaeological evidences, we tried to outline the features and the duties of the goddess over time, also comparing all the detected data with the Greek world. The result will perhaps help in defining them better than has been done hitherto.
Kalotaszeg is a famous historic and ethnographic region in Transylvania (Romania) consisting of approximately 35–40 village communities. The region has raised considerable scholarly interest since its early discovery at the end of the 19th century. A constantly reoccurring focus of studies has been to outline the structure of the region. Although it was not our primary concern, when we started our social anthropology fi eldwork at the beginning of the 1990s we soon encountered the problematic issue of how to delineate the external and internal boundaries around and within this multi-ethnic and multi-religious region and how to grasp in-group and out-group relations with a special regard to the context of socio-historical structure of the population in the area. We wanted to understand what kinds of diachronic and synchronic factors stood behind the formation of various networks of human connection interpreted as regional structures.
történeti időben [Who, when and with whom to get married? Marriage place of the individual in the way of life and historical time]. Szociológiai Szemle , 2000/2 , 105–127.
2002: Ki kivel (nem) házasodik? A partnerszelekciós minták
Summary This paper examines, through the scope of both traditional heroic models and - mainly - Western feminist theories, the mutations of the marriage metaphor in the Grottaferrata version of Digenis Akritas, an epic of the “borderline' condition between Byzantine and Asian culture, with the former being as much differentiated by its Western (Roman-Christian) stance vis-à-vis its neighbors, as well as an Eastern empire at heart. The peculiar tendency of this epic to revel in bride-snatching and illicit, “polluting' trans-cultural liaisons (chiefly between Digenis and the Amazon Maximo) suggests the ambiguous cultural position of the Byzantine mind, the terminus of Christian Europe and the Balkan cultural conglomerate, in its inevitable zymosis with the Levant and the Orient.
1 SOCIETY AND RITUAL: WOMEN AND MARRIAGE IN LOMBARD SOCIETY In the belief that early medieval women had no legal capacity and nor even a precise or clearly defined economic role, Italian historiography has always considered Lombard society as an
The paper contains a full conjectural restoration of the mutilated speeches of Smikrines and Pamphile at lines 785–835 of Menander’s
, together with a line by line English translation and a few critical notes to supplement W. G. Arnott’s presentation of the text in the 2004 MacDowell
, which is here reproduced from the original publication.
Ungarischen Staatsbürgerschaft. (Tübingen, 1880), 47-48; According to the Civil Code of 1811, Austrian citizenship could be acquired by way of marriage, legitimization, descent, naturalization, and entering civil service. The last case was a debated one
The influence of Byron on Liszt was enormous, as is generally acknowledged. In particular the First Book of the Années de pèlerinage shows the poet’s influence in its choice of Byron epigraphs in English for four of the set of nine pieces. In his years of travel as a virtuoso pianist Liszt often referred to “mon byronisme.” The work by Byron that most affected Liszt is the long narrative poem Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage which was translated into many languages, including French. The word “pèlerinage” that replaced “voyageur” is a Byronic identity in Liszt’s thinking. The Byronic hero as Liszt saw him and imitated him in for example Mazeppa and Tasso is a figure who represented a positive force, suffering and perhaps a revolutionary, but definitely not a public enemy. Liszt’s life, viewed as a musical pilgrimage, led of course to Rome. Is it possible that Byron even influenced him in this direction? In this paper I try to give a portrait of the real Byron that hides behind the poseur of his literary works, and suggest that what drew Liszt to the English poet was precisely the man whom he sensed behind the artistic mask. Byron was not musical, but he was religious — as emerges from his life and his letters, a life which caused scandal to his English contemporaries. But today we can see that part of the youthful genius of the rebel Byron was his boldness in the face of hypocrisy and compromise — his heroism was simply to be true. In this we can see a parallel with the Liszt who left the piano and composed Christus. What look like incompatibilities are simply the connection between action and contemplation — between the journey and the goal. Byron, in fact, can help us follow the ligne intérieure which Liszt talked about in the 1830s.