A 10-gram computerised mixograph-based Reomixer instrument was used to analyse eight bread wheat cultivars. The influence of flour or whole-grain meal and different hydration methods for whole-grain meal on the prediction of baking quality was studied. Using flour/whole-grain meal materials and different hydration methods, several Reomixer parameters were found to correlate with bread-making performance. Regression equations were constructed using statistically significant Reomixer parameters. Whole-grain meal Reomixer analysis under constant hydration of 75% proved to be as comparable a method for bread-making performance evaluation as flour analysis.
The parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa induces behavioral changes in the cockroach prey by injecting venom into its central nervous system. In contrast to most other venomous predators, the wasp's sting does not induce paralysis. Rather, the two consecutive stings in the thoracic and head ganglia induce three stereotypic behavioral effects. The prey behavior is manipulated in a way beneficial to the wasp and its offspring by providing a living meal for its newborn larva. The first sting in the thorax causes a transient front leg paralysis lasting a few minutes. This paralysis prevents the cockroach from fighting with its front legs, thereby facilitating the second sting in the head. A postsynaptic block of central synaptic transmission mediates this leg paralysis. Following the head sting, dopamine identified in the venom induces 30 minutes of intense grooming that appears to prevent the cockroach from straying until the last and third behavioral effect of hypokinesia commences. In this lethargic state that lasts about three weeks, the cockroach does not respond to various stimuli nor does it initiates movement. However, other specific behaviors of the prey are unaffected. We propose that the venom represses the activity of head ganglia neurons thereby removing the descending excitatory drive to specific thoracic neurons.
Authors:F. Oloyede, F. Oloyede, T. Saliu, and A. Ogunwole
Extracts from some fern species have been found to be useful in fortifying livestock and fish feeds to enhance production especially in peasant communities. The chemical composition of
has not been documented in Nigeria. This study was thus designed to determine its suitability for use in fortifying fish feed by analysing the nutrient and anti-nutrient contents of its dimorphic fronds separately. One kg of sterile and fertile fronds of
were collected, washed using distilled water and oven dried at 40 °C for about 96 hours. The dried samples were milled and analysed for proximate minerals, cyanide and oxalate analyses in triplicates. Results of the nutrient and anti-nutrient analyses show that both the sterile and the fertile fronds of
can be used in aquaculture. The crude protein (4.22–5.28 g/100 g), moisture (87–91.00 g/100 g), carbohydrate (3.12–7.40 g/100 g), magnesium (23.55–194.65 mg/100 g), calcium (0.03 mg/100 g), potassium (0.17 mg/100 g), sodium (0.17 mg/100 g), silver (50.0 mg/100 g), cobalt (3.75–4.45 mg/100 g), lead (53.5–172.5 mg/100 g), copper (60.45–61.0 mg/100 g), manganese (15.65 mg/100 g), arsenium (50 mg/100 g), cadmium (3.75–4.50 mg/100 g), iron (430.00–537.45 mg/100 g) and selenium (106.83–195.45 mg/100 g) contents are considerably high. The anti-nutritional oxalate (0.86–1.38 mg/100 g) and cyanide (0.88–1.16 mg/100 g) are low and fall within the safe and acceptable limits as recommended by the World Health Organisation. Thus, extract from these fronds can be incorporated into livestocks and fish meals.
Authors:Zsuzsa Szőke, Éva Váradi, K. Kelemen, A. Biczó, and P. Péczely
., Thompson, J. R., Turner, B. V., Kennedy, P. M., Goh, Y. K. (1987) Rate of passage of corn-canola meal and corn-soybean meal diets through the gastrointestinal tract of broiler and white leghorn chickens. Poult. Sci. 66, 289
Troshchynska , Y. , Synytsya , A. , Kyselka , J. , Štětina , J.
2016 . Flaxseed meal mucilage polysaccharides: chemical characterization . In: Řápková , R. , Čopíková , J. , Šárka , E. (eds), Proceedings of the 12th International
Authors:Ali K. Said, L. Dorgai, Anett Gazdag, Magdolna Ábrahám, and Edit Hermesz
Misra, S., Zafarullah, M., Price-Haughey, J., Gedamu, L. (1989) Analysis of stress-induced gene expression in fish cell lines exposed to heavy meals and heat shock. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1007 , 325-333.
Analysis of stress
Martina, M., Comas, T., Mealing, G. A. R. (2013) Selective pharmacological modulation of pyramidal neurons and interneurons in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus. Front. Pharmacol. 4, 24.
Mealing G. A. R