Authors:Marek Opalka, Justyna Kugla-Owczarska, Barbara Kaminska, Helena Puchajda-Skowronska, Wioletta Hryniewicka, and Luiza Dusza
The aim of this study was to investigate how long-term feeding of ganders with diets containing different levels of phytoestrogens affects the morphometry of testes, plasma steroid levels, sperm parameters and reproductive performance. Male Bilgoraj geese were fed diets containing grass meal (with low phytoestrogen levels) and those containing alfalfa meal and soybean meal (with higher levels of phytoestrogens). Testes were obtained from ganders at the peak of mating and the ongoing laying period as well as at the beginning of photorefractoriness. The morphometric parameters were measured in frozen testicular sections. Blood was collected monthly from December to June, and plasma testosterone, androstenedione and corticosterone concentrations were determined. During the mating season, semen was collected and its quantity and quality were investigated. In the flocks (ganders with geese) reproductive output was noted. Seasonal changes were observed in the morphology of testes and in plasma testosterone, androstenedione and corticosterone concentrations in ganders. The feeding of ganders with dietary meals containing higher levels of phytoestrogens did not affect the plasma steroid contents or the majority of the morphometric parameters of testes, except for the height of the seminiferous epithelium, which was lowered. Moreover, diets with higher levels of phytoestrogens decreased the volume of ejaculates and the percentage of normal spermatozoa. However, these changes were not reflected in the fertilisation rates.
Authors:Roland Psáder, Ágnes Sterczer, Kinga Pápa, Andrea Harnos, Viktória Szilvási, and Ákos Pap
. L., Center, S. A., Randolph, J. E., Yeager, A. E., Erb, H. N. and Warner, K. L. (2008): Changes in gallbladder volume in healthy dogs after food was withheld for 12 hours followed by ingestion of a meal or a meal containing erythromycin. Am. J. Vet
soybean meal on the microscopic anatomy of the small intestine in early weaned pig. J. Anim. Sci. 67, 1855-1863.
Effect of dietary soybean meal on the microscopic anatomy of the small intestine in early weaned pig
Authors:J. Kutasi, Á. Bata, E. Brydl, P. Rafai, and V. Jurkovich
This paper describes the production of an enzyme preparation from the fungus Thermomyces lanuginosus. Thermal resistance, pH stability and lignocellulolytic activity of the enzyme preparation high in xylanase were studied on a variety of grains and forages. The enzyme preparation preserved more than 70% of its original xylanase activity for 4 and 1 h at 60 and 70 °C, respectively. The xylanase activity remained over 80% when the preparation was incubated for 30 min at pH 4.5. In vitro digestibility studies indicated that the enzyme digested 7.5, 8.5 and 8.0% of the dry matter (DM) of barley meal, wheat bran and oat meal samples, respectively. When applying 60-min incubation, 7.5, 7.3 and 8.4% of DM of the oat straw, alfalfa hay and triticale straw was digested, respectively. When the time of digestion was increased to 360 min, the sunflower hull showed 15.8% DM digestibility.
Authors:Karim Ennouri, Rayda Ben Ayed, Hanen Ben Hassen, Maura Mazzarello, and Ennio Ottaviani
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram-positive bacterium. The entomopathogenic activity of Bt is related to the existence of the crystal consisting of protoxins, also called delta-endotoxins. In order to optimize and explain the production of delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, we studied seven medium components: soybean meal, starch, KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO4, MnSO4, and MgSO4 and their relationships with the concentration of delta-endotoxins using an experimental design (Plackett—Burman design) and Bayesian networks modelling. The effects of the ingredients of the culture medium on delta-endotoxins production were estimated. The developed model showed that different medium components are important for the Bacillus thuringiensis fermentation. The most important factors influenced the production of delta-endotoxins are FeSO4, K2HPO4, starch and soybean meal. Indeed, it was found that soybean meal, K2HPO4, KH2PO4 and starch also showed positive effect on the delta-endotoxins production. However, FeSO4 and MnSO4 expressed opposite effect. The developed model, based on Bayesian techniques, can automatically learn emerging models in data to serve in the prediction of delta-endotoxins concentrations. The constructed model in the present study implies that experimental design (Plackett—Burman design) joined with Bayesian networks method could be used for identification of effect variables on delta-endotoxins variation.