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Although there is a wealth of studies on Romanesque metal bowls, no consensus has been reached regarding the craftsmanship, the depictions, the function, the distribution and the dating of these bowls. The assessment of the still unpublished finds from a smaller region can stimulate advances in this field. One case in point is the publication of the bowl fragments housed in various collections of County Békés.

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. „Black Metal ist Krieg“. Die mythische Rekonstruktion martialischer „weißer“ Männlichkeit in subkulturellen Musikszenen . In: Kauer K. (Hrsg.) Pop und Männlichkeit. Zwei Phänomene in prekärer Wechselwirkung? Berlin, 2009 . 181 – 204

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. Historic Brass Society Journal 21 ( 2009 ) 93 – 101 . Armada 2011 = X.-L. Armada : 9. Feasting metals and the ideology of power in the Late Bronze Age of Atlantic Iberia . In: Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner. Feasting rituals in the prehistoric

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A pápai oklevelek kettőspecsétjei jellemzően levéltárakban maradtak fenn, régészeti leletként ritkán kerülnek elő. A tanulmány a 2019 novemberében, a középkori Bánhegyes falu (ma: Békés megye, Magyarbánhegyes) területén fémkeresős kutatás során előkerült pápai ólombulla jellemzőit, történeti hátterét, ismert hazai és nemzetközi párhuzamait mutatja be.

The bullae of papal charters are typically preserved in archives and only rarely are they brought to light as archaeological finds. Presented here is the papal lead bulla discovered in the medieval village of Bánhegyes (modern Magyarbánhegyes, County Békés) in November 2019 during a metal detecting survey, alongside a discussion of its historical background and its currently known parallels from Hungary and other regions.

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Abstract

The present paper examines the relationship between incantations and belief narratives, two types of oral genres based on human contact with the supernatural. Such contact attests to a dangerous disruption of the boundary between the human and demonic worlds and to the intensive efforts to reinforce it so that participants may return to the space they belong in. For this purpose, various verbal and nonverbal tools are used in belief narratives (gestures, objects, plants, sound or light signals, certain activities – such as walking backwards, placing a cap over the forehead, etc.). In contrast, incantations, an inseparable part of vernacular magical practices, rely solely on verbal communication with impure forces.

This paper will analyse the following aspects of interconnection between these oral genres: 1) the display of a genre within a genre – the presence of incantations in belief narratives, e.g., about dispersing hailstorm clouds; 2) the types of verbal communication with the supernatural in belief narratives (swearing, cursing, command, reproach) and their equivalents in incantations; 3) various motifs of protection from demons (counting the uncountable, using bodily fluids; thorn, fire, metal, broom, etc.). The consideration of shared elements in these genres that preserve the relationship with the mythological narrative include elements of the ceremonial context in which incantations are performed. I argue that some of these elements appear also in belief narratives, where they undergo a transformation.

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In my writing, I examine the formation and transformation of the betrothal practices of the Roman Catholic Hungarian community of Gyimes based on the results of my fieldwork research from 2005 to 2016. Betrothal came into practice in the 1980s; prior to that, ethnographic sources only mention the ritual occasion of proposal. According to Roman Catholic church norms, the ring could not be worn before the church wedding; only newlyweds were allowed to put it on their finger. For a long time, they used borrowed rings for the blessing of the rings. I explore why it was important for young couples to buy or have their own precious metal wedding rings made, despite regulations that virtually prohibited, but certainly did not support, the pre-wedding wearing of rings. Why did ring wearing and betrothal itself become fashionable? I identify the ideologies and concepts that transformed the earlier rites and views and how they contributed to the popularity of wedding ring sets and companion rings offered by jewelers. I argue that an alternative betrothal rite, the act and ideology of the Csíksomlyó ring exchange, could have greatly contributed to betrothal and ring wearing becoming a common practice in Gyimes. Until the 1990s, this was a strategy adopted by the local community which, similarly to the secular, profane passage into womanhood or emergency baptism, offered an opportunity to exit marginal life situations.

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In the spring of 2011, people using metal detectors discovered a new site at Bugyi village, Pest county. The Directorate of the Museums of Pest County conducted authenticating and rescue excavations on the territory and they found a few graves of a Conquest Period cemetery. One of the burials proved to be especially important: a gilded silver sabretache plate, a mounted belt of a unique structure and the remains of a rare bow type lay in the grave of a high-ranked man. With regard to the significance of the grave, we describe the finds in a preliminary publication. The planned excavation of the site and the scientific analysis of the finds have been started.

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–Baran-Çelik 2013 O. Tekin Baran-Çelik : Corpus Ponderum Antiquorum et Islamicorum . Turkey. 2: Istanbul Archaeological Museums. Greek, Roman, Byzantine and Islamic Weights in the Department of Metal Objects (Turkish Institute of Archaeology). Istanbul 2013

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Fidelis Pannonia

Politikai programkép 1792-ből Ignaz Pfeilhauer üveghátlap-festményén

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author: Péter Buzinkay

The subject of the paper – a reverse glass painting (Hinterglasmalerei) – came to its current owner from a well-known private collection in Budapest. Painted on a 2 mm thick glass plate measuring 300 × 350 mm, silhouettes of figures with subtly painted details on their costumes are shown with scratched metal foil decoration in the background. The date of making around 1790 is clearly determined by the depicted scene in addition to the neo-classical late baroque style of the rendering. The Hungarian style clothing of the figures, their badges and the Hungarian coat of arms on the breast of the Habsburg eagle together with the inscriptions (“Fidelis Pannia”, “Ego Fidelis Natio Hungarica”) provide first-hand clues for interpretation. From among the rulers of the age, the “F II” monogram seen at two places must refer to Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor and king of Bohemia, who ascended the Hungarian throne as Francis I in 1792. The young man standing on the right is to be identified with him on account of the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Hungarian Royal Order of St Stephen worn on his attire. The young man sitting on left must then be the Hungarian palatine Alexander Leopold. The elderly high priest standing behind him also wearing the decorations of the grand cross of the Order of St Stephen is archbishop of Esztergom Count József Batthyány. The young female figure in Hungarian style costume is the queen, Maria Teresa of the Two Sicilies. The picture shows the most important figures of the compromise arrived at during the Diet of 1792 held in the ancient Hungarian capital Buda.

In contradistinction to the legacy of the late Joseph II (died 1790) who had imposed reforms, this political settlement promised to restore the ancient constitution of the Hungarian nobility in return for an offer of taxes and recruits needed for the Habsburgs’ French wars. This agreement was particularly well received by the rural Hungarian nobility. The choice of the language for the inscriptions – Latin – also confirms this as a conserving cultural symbol. The person who ordered the picture and first owned it must be sought in this social stratum.

The date of making must be connected to the Diet of 1792, for the significance of the compromise was soon overshadowed by the events of the French wars and other domestic political changes, so the subject of the picture had no topical significance in the mid-1790s any more. The glass picture was certainly made in Vienna. This technique was not practiced in Hungary; Vienna was a centre of silhouette painting at that time. Silhouettes already appeared painted on glass, alloyed with other techniques. The pictorial devices of the picture also point towards Vienna, reminding one of the widely disseminated silhouette scenes of Johann Hieronymus Löschenkohl (Elberfeld, 1753 – Vienna, 1807). In this circle one can find a glass painter of Linz, Ignaz Pfeilhauer (Linz, 1765 – Linz, 1843), who also worked in Vienna and several of whose signed pictures are known by research. Outstanding among them are a signed picture dated 1796 showing the chamber orchestra of the Linz civil guard in green uniform and an unidentified family scene at the breakfast table, a reverse glass painting from 1794. After a comparison with further pictures by him, it can be concluded that the Budapest glass painting displays the same peculiarities: in the group scenes set in interiors the somewhat rigidly rendered silhouette figures appear to be floating, and the lines of the floor and the symmetrically placed pieces of furniture refuse to proceed towards a vanishing point, running counter to the rules of perspective. The body and hand postures of the conversing silhouette figures with inner details also drawn in gold and other colours are similar in all paintings concerned. This is complemented with techniques of colorfully painted and scratched metal foil, canvas and paper applications. On the basis of all this the Budapest reverse glass painting may be defined as the earliest known work of Ignaz Pfeilhauer.

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