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. Csernicskó, 2013; Megyeri-Pálffy, 2013; Walkowiak, 2016 ). Government policy affects the official use of proper nouns (the registration of personal names and the official use of place name and institution name), and laws regarding names regulate minority name

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The Article gives a general overview of the Hungarian constitutional and legal framework for the participation of national minorities in the decision-making. The relatively low number of people belonging to national minorities in Hungary as well as the scattered patterns of their settlement and some aspects of the Hungarian legal traditions underlie the choice of the so called personal autonomy approach. The minorities can establish via a special electing mechanism local and national self-governments enjoying consultative and truly public law type rule-making and administrative competences. Having given the proper interpretation of the relevant article of the Constitution, the Constitutional Court also contributed to the birth of the Act on the Rights of Minorities. The basic reason behind the creation of a very complicated, multilevel institutional complex is that in this way, educational and cultural needs of minorities of different scale can be represented in a relatively coherent manner. This does not exclude at all the possibility of bringing modifications to the legal text in the light of a decade's experience.

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The Bolyai University was the Hungarian half of the current Babeş-Bolyai University in Cluj/Kolozsvár, Transylvania. It was an independent Hungarian University until its merger with the Babeş University in 1959. This merged institution is one of the most important centers of higher education in present-day Romania. However, it has a past that can be traced back to the 16th century within the context of the independent Translvania of John Sigismund and Stephen Báthory. It later evolved into a Habsburg institution, then a Hungarian and a Romanian University. Finally, during World War II it operated as two separate institutions with Hungarian and Romanian faculties respectively. The two were merged by the Gheorghiu-Dej communist government in 1959. Ever since, Hungarian minority intellectuals have called for the restoration of the independent Boylai University. The current paper focuses on the independent Bolyai University between 1944 and 1959. It reflects on its role as the premier institution for the recruitment and training of the Hungarian minority’s cultural and educational elite. The paper links the fate of this institution to the communist transformation of Romania and its consequences for the Hungarians of Transylvania.

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Hungarian Journal of Legal Studies
Authors: Oleksandra Kolohoida, Iryna Lukach, Valeriia Poiedynok, and Anastasiia Prokopiuk

due time, all developed corporate legal orders recognized the need of establishing a legal framework for buying out shares from minority shareholders in case of concentration of interest that, as a rule, exceeds 90%, at one person’s hands. Directive

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1 INTRODUCTION For the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and interwar Czechoslovakia, the national issue had an existential significance. These days they are referred to as national minorities but at the time of monarchy it might have been more appropriate

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INTRODUCTION Bilateral agreements on the protection of the national minorities’ rights have existed for a long time in international law. 1 At the same time, their significance and role after the fall of the Berlin Wall have been particularly

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Legal regulation of the use of minority languages in Slovakia According to the 1995 Law on the state language, still in effect, the language of all official language use in Slovakia is Slovak. Staff in administrative institutions are required to use

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-Chairez, 2017 ). For example, sexual/gender minorities of color are at risk of experiencing structural stressors such as homophobia or transphobia in their ethnic communities, as well as racism in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and

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The aim of this study is to draw attention to national minorities as a group distinct from immigrants. Additionally, it attempts to introduce a global perspective on national minorities, specifically on Hungarians in Central Europe, where, instead of concentrating on the respective countries separately, it adopts a comparative approach. As there are no specific theories addressing the issue of national minorities from the educational point of view, immigrant theories might be a useful starting point. For example, Ogbu's categorization of minorities on the basis of voluntariness (free will) allows us to distinguish between immigrants and national minorities as two distinct categories. The applicability of Ogbu's theory on national minorities gives us a good opportunity to test the utility of his thesis in European context. Using empirical evidence from a nationally representative survey carried out in the Carpathian Basin I find little support for Ogbu's thesis. According to the data, there is a high discrepancy between the autochthonous minorities examined in the study which questions the possibility of generalisation of minorities based solely on voluntariness. Additionally, the empirical analysis testing Ogbu's concept on the example of Hungarians does not favour the thesis of oppositional culture. The Hungarian national minority as an involuntary group is not significantly disadvantaged with respect to educational attainment (with the exception of Slovakia). On the contrary, they seem to catch up with the majority i.e. the gap between majority and minority appears to be closing.

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predominantly White Western mainstream field of psychedelic medicine recognizes its role in cultural appropriation ( Herzberg & Butler, 2019 ), the perpetuation of systemic inequities, and the limitations of current treatment protocols for ethnic minority

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