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Ottaway, M. (2002): Nation-building. Foreign Policy Sep/Oct 2002: 16–22. Sereda, V. (2002): Regional Historical Identities in Ukraine: Case Study of Lviv and Donetsk Available: http

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This paper focuses on the set of ideological means and systems of scholarly argumentation presented by the field of geographical science between the two world wars in an attempt to prove the unity of the Hungarian national space and demonstrate the impracticability of the spatial confines within which the state had to exist due to the ruling implemented after the Paris Peace Treaty. Specifically, I will elaborate on the geographical myths used to legitimize the so-called Hungarian state space, with special attention devoted to ethnic mapping as an ethno-political device and means of articulating discourses of power discourse.

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The article investigates the uses of the motif of the Warrior Women in János Arany’s epic poetry. The author of the article claims that the motif of the Warrior Women in Arany’s poetical discourse stemmed from the romantic literary tradition of the 1820–1830s. Furthermore, she argues that an old Scottish ballad, purportedly known by János Arany, provided the pattern that had been imitated by the Hungarian poet. Hence, the romantic image of the Hungarian Warrior Woman has become a highly symbolic and propagandistic content in Arany’s poetry during the 1850s. It reveals a genuine nineteenth-century endeavour of the nation-building process in order to promote the nation’s ready-to-fight patriotic women as models to be followed.

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Summary The project is a cultural-historical investigation of nineteenth-century concepts of national opera and national music. It brings under close scrutiny the genre of national opera as a cultural institution and as a multimedia art form. The main goal is to define the ideas of national music and national opera in the broader context of nineteenth-century nationalistic political and philosophical discourses. Cultural and historical approaches interpret musical and literary works by means of constructing the cultural context from which they arouse. I wish to consider nineteenth-century Hungarian and Romanian operas as cultural phenomena that do not only reflect or express their own times, but are themselves also active agents in shaping their social and cultural world. National operas did not arise accidentally. They were part of the national awakening that swept across much of East-Central Europe during the nineteenth century. What was first a passion later became a mission. National awakenings gave the impetus and the ideology for institutionalizing literature and music; but there is a two way traffic within this process, since the ideology is like a chiastic rhetorical figure: on the one hand it is an inherent characteristic of the language, on the other hand it is a construction. It creates and at the same time itself is a creation. That is why it is so important to examine the language use itself when we talk about national ideologies, national literature and music.

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“There is no nation without history, there is no family without a family tree”

On Sibe ethnic nationalist aspirations through the example of a “family tree unification” story

Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Author: Ildikó Gyöngyvér Sárközi

The 1949 rise to power of the Chinese Communist Party (Zhongguo Gongchandang 中国共产党)1 was the beginning of a new era in China: the declaration of the People’s Republic of China (Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo 中华人民共和国) was the first step on the “socialist road” leading to the creation of the long-coveted Chinese national unity. However, progress on the “socialist road” has posed many challenges for the ethnic minorities living within China’s borders. Mostly because melting into the Chinese national unity – paradoxically – became a symbol of the autonomy of ethnic minorities. In the spirit of this process, the ethnic nationalist aspirations of the Sibe (Chin. xibo zu 锡伯族; Sib. sibe uksura ᠰᡞᠪᡝ ᡠᡣᠰᡠᠷᠠ), the ethnic minority I studied, unfolded alongside the writing of Chinese national history. In my work, I follow these endeavors from the 1950s until recent times. At the center is a story that is seemingly about the knowledge base of Sibe ancestors, the family trees, and beyond that, about the “reunification” of a clan that was torn apart in 1764 by thousands of miles. But, in fact, it formulates much more than that: the idea of political martyrdom by the Sibe in the interest of creating the Chinese national unity. It is through this story that I wish to provide an insight into how Chinese national unity was created.

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The people who are never lost

Family trees in a political context in present day Bashkortostan

Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Author: Boglárka Mácsai

, 2015) Z amâtin , Konstantin 2012 The Education Reform in Russia and its Impact on Teaching of the Minority Languages: An Effect of Nation-Building? Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe 11 ( 1 ): 17 – 47 .

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The paper examines a highly interesting workQirim Qarai Türkleri,published in Istanbul in 1928 by Seraya Sapsaloglu (Seraja Szapszal in Polish sources), the renowned Karaite communal leader, one of the leading Russian Turkologists of his time, a former Czarist diplomat and a Jewish Pan-Turkist. This popular and quasi-scientific work was typical of the Romantic Period of the “nation-building”stage in the history of many Eastern European minorities. It was, however, essential in the presentation of the Türkic-speaking Eastern European and Crimean Karaite Jews as remnants of some imagined ancient Türkic race, clandestinely preserving Altaic paganism. Written in an appealing style, this work made a deep impression on the Early Republican intellectuals. In the present paper some of Szapszal's assertions made in this work are analysed against their historical and linguistic background. The paper touches on intellectual trends current during the Early Republican period, the state of the European, Russian and Turkish Turkology of the age, and the metamorphoses of the secularised communal consciousness.

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Architecture, art et industrie

Institutions et enseignement en Hongrie à l’époque du dualisme

Acta Historiae Artium Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author: József Sisa

Architecture, art and industry – institutions and education in Hungary in the age of dualism. After the Austro-Hungarian compromise of 1867, Hungary launched a programme of modernisation and nation building, which included the improvement of education in the areas of architecture and the applied arts. The government made efforts to achieve this by radically transforming the institutional framework, reforming existing establishments, and setting up new ones. In 1871 the Joseph Polytechnic, which had been in operation since 1856, was accorded the status of a university (Joseph Technical University). In 1872 the School of Drawing was launched. Within it the School of Applied Arts was established in 1880, the institution becoming independent in 1896. In 1888 the Municipal School of Industrial Drawing of Budapest, the successor of earlier lower level schools of drawing, was established, now as a new centre for the training of artisans. The State High School of Industry opened its school at the end of 1879. Teachers and students had access to an increasing number of French, German, English and Hungarian books and pattern sheets acquired systematically by the institutions, which also used plaster casts and models as teaching aids. Some newly-founded schools operated in conjunction with museums of their respective disciplines.

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Summary The assimilation of the Jewish minority (as well as the German and Hungarian ones) was widely discussed in Czechoslovakia after 1918. The situation was more pressing in the Slovak part, especially due to a large population of mostly orthodox Jews in Carpathian Ruthenia. Their political, economic, and social emancipation was in the beginning stages compared with other parts of Central Europe. Gejza Vámoš (1901-1956) addressed the forms and conditions of Jewish assimilation in Slovakia in his novel Odlomená haluz (Broken Branch, 1934). Vámoš himself came from a Hungarian-speaking Jewish family and was an eager adherent of assimilation. His novel was set in Upper Hungary (Slovakia) during the last years of the Austro- Hungarian Monarchy, but he dealt with assimilation from the perspective of the contemporary Czechoslovak Republic. He discussed the degree of assimilation in different regions of Central Eastern Europe, and claimed that it was more successful in the southern than in the northern part. He also focused on the differences between Jews in Hungary itself and in Upper Hungary. Vámoš wished to show that the precondition of successful assimilation is for the Jews to forsake their outdated religious and mercantile practices. Jews should be proud of their historical tradition and intellectual heritage, but they should strive to adopt the culture, as well as the (secular) worldview and mentality, of the nation they are in. This general doctrine of assimilation is exemplified by the story of a Jewish boy who unexpectedly changes his identity and, taking his non-Jewish father's name, also accepts his father's worldview. This narrative line contains obvious features of Bildungsroman: a change of attitudes and perceptions, along with the mixing of the races, could lead to a new, united mankind. Vámoš believed in the power of education and the natural sciences. His theory of assimilation encompassed various ideological sources, such as social Darwinism, modern Jewish Messianism, as well as ideas on nation-building (including Masaryk's). Vámoš probably wished to act as a mediator in relations between Slovaks and Jews, and to break with the tradition in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Slovak literature of portraying Jews negatively. Nevertheless, his book - in spite of its vision of a united mankind and its praise of Jewish heritage - contained numerous negative stereotypes of Jews. When excerpts of the novel were published, several lawsuits were brought against Vámoš. The discussion of Broken Branch was centered round several questions: What role would this book play in the contemporary political situation in regard to Judaism? What is the nature of the relation between reality and fiction? What are the limits of artistic freedom? The reaction to the novel showed the political polarization of Slovak society in the 1930s, and contributed indirectly to Vámoš's decision to leave the country in 1939.

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. Connor, Walker (1972): Nation Building or Nation Destroying? In: World Politics . Cambridge University Press, Princeton. Demesmay, Claire (2003): Les Européens existent-ils? (on-line). Politique étrangere , IFRI, Paris, Vol

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