This paper focuses on the set of ideological means and systems of scholarly argumentation presented by the field of geographical science between the two world wars in an attempt to prove the unity of the Hungarian national space and demonstrate the impracticability of the spatial confines within which the state had to exist due to the ruling implemented after the Paris Peace Treaty. Specifically, I will elaborate on the geographical myths used to legitimize the so-called Hungarian state space, with special attention devoted to ethnic mapping as an ethno-political device and means of articulating discourses of power discourse.
The article investigates the uses of the motif of the Warrior Women in János Arany’s epic poetry. The author of the article claims that the motif of the Warrior Women in Arany’s poetical discourse stemmed from the romantic literary tradition of the 1820–1830s. Furthermore, she argues that an old Scottish ballad, purportedly known by János Arany, provided the pattern that had been imitated by the Hungarian poet. Hence, the romantic image of the Hungarian Warrior Woman has become a highly symbolic and propagandistic content in Arany’s poetry during the 1850s. It reveals a genuine nineteenth-century endeavour of the nation-building process in order to promote the nation’s ready-to-fight patriotic women as models to be followed.
Summary The project is a cultural-historical investigation of nineteenth-century concepts of national opera and national music. It brings under close scrutiny the genre of national opera as a cultural institution and as a multimedia art form. The main goal is to define the ideas of national music and national opera in the broader context of nineteenth-century nationalistic political and philosophical discourses. Cultural and historical approaches interpret musical and literary works by means of constructing the cultural context from which they arouse. I wish to consider nineteenth-century Hungarian and Romanian operas as cultural phenomena that do not only reflect or express their own times, but are themselves also active agents in shaping their social and cultural world. National operas did not arise accidentally. They were part of the national awakening that swept across much of East-Central Europe during the nineteenth century. What was first a passion later became a mission. National awakenings gave the impetus and the ideology for institutionalizing literature and music; but there is a two way traffic within this process, since the ideology is like a chiastic rhetorical figure: on the one hand it is an inherent characteristic of the language, on the other hand it is a construction. It creates and at the same time itself is a creation. That is why it is so important to examine the language use itself when we talk about national ideologies, national literature and music.
The 1949 rise to power of the Chinese Communist Party (Zhongguo Gongchandang 中国共产党)1 was the beginning of a new era in China: the declaration of the People’s Republic of China (Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo 中华人民共和国) was the first step on the “socialist road” leading to the creation of the long-coveted Chinese national unity. However, progress on the “socialist road” has posed many challenges for the ethnic minorities living within China’s borders. Mostly because melting into the Chinese national unity – paradoxically – became a symbol of the autonomy of ethnic minorities. In the spirit of this process, the ethnic nationalist aspirations of the Sibe (Chin. xibo zu 锡伯族; Sib. sibe uksura ᠰᡞᠪᡝ ᡠᡣᠰᡠᠷᠠ), the ethnic minority I studied, unfolded alongside the writing of Chinese national history. In my work, I follow these endeavors from the 1950s until recent times. At the center is a story that is seemingly about the knowledge base of Sibe ancestors, the family trees, and beyond that, about the “reunification” of a clan that was torn apart in 1764 by thousands of miles. But, in fact, it formulates much more than that: the idea of political martyrdom by the Sibe in the interest of creating the Chinese national unity. It is through this story that I wish to provide an insight into how Chinese national unity was created.
Z amâtin , Konstantin 2012 The Education Reform in Russia and its Impact on Teaching of the Minority Languages: An Effect of Nation-Building? Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe 11 ( 1 ): 17 – 47 .
Architecture, art and industry – institutions and education in Hungary in the age of dualism. After the Austro-Hungarian compromise of 1867, Hungary launched a programme of modernisation and nation building, which included the improvement of education in the areas of architecture and the applied arts. The government made efforts to achieve this by radically transforming the institutional framework, reforming existing establishments, and setting up new ones. In 1871 the Joseph Polytechnic, which had been in operation since 1856, was accorded the status of a university (Joseph Technical University). In 1872 the School of Drawing was launched. Within it the School of Applied Arts was established in 1880, the institution becoming independent in 1896. In 1888 the Municipal School of Industrial Drawing of Budapest, the successor of earlier lower level schools of drawing, was established, now as a new centre for the training of artisans. The State High School of Industry opened its school at the end of 1879. Teachers and students had access to an increasing number of French, German, English and Hungarian books and pattern sheets acquired systematically by the institutions, which also used plaster casts and models as teaching aids. Some newly-founded schools operated in conjunction with museums of their respective disciplines.
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3. Zu den zentralistischen Maßnahmen in Groß-Rumänien und ihre Auswirkung auf die Provinz Siebenbürgen siehe Livezeanu, Irina: Cultural Politics in Greater Romania. Regionalism, Nation
The paper examines a highly interesting workQirim Qarai Türkleri,published in Istanbul in 1928 by Seraya Sapsaloglu (Seraja Szapszal in Polish sources), the renowned Karaite communal leader, one of the leading Russian Turkologists of his time, a former Czarist diplomat and a Jewish Pan-Turkist. This popular and quasi-scientific work was typical of the Romantic Period of the “nation-building”stage in the history of many Eastern European minorities. It was, however, essential in the presentation of the Türkic-speaking Eastern European and Crimean Karaite Jews as remnants of some imagined ancient Türkic race, clandestinely preserving Altaic paganism. Written in an appealing style, this work made a deep impression on the Early Republican intellectuals. In the present paper some of Szapszal's assertions made in this work are analysed against their historical and linguistic background. The paper touches on intellectual trends current during the Early Republican period, the state of the European, Russian and Turkish Turkology of the age, and the metamorphoses of the secularised communal consciousness.