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society and standards of living. However, scientific knowledge itself has attracted less attention than its outcomes. A better understanding of the organization and evolution of scientific knowledge can accelerate future advances. This study contributes to

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This paper addresses scientists’ behaviour regarding the patenting of knowledge produced in universities and other public sector research organisations (PSROs). Recent years have witnessed a rapid growth in patenting and licensing activities by PSROs. We argue that the whole process depends to a certain extent on scientists’ willingness to disclose their inventions. Given this assumption, we conduct research into individual behaviour in order to understand scientists’ views concerning the patenting of their research results. Data from a questionnaire survey of Portuguese researchers from nine PSROs in life sciences and biotechnology is presented and analysed and complemented with in-depth interviews. The results reveal that overall the scientists surveyed show a low propensity to become involved in patenting and licensing activities, despite the fact that the majority had no “ethical” objections to the disclosure of their inventions and the commercial exploitation of these. Perceptions about the impacts of these activities on certain fundamental aspects of knowledge production and dissemination are however divergent. This may account for the low participation levels. Furthermore, most scientists perceived the personal benefits deriving from this type of activity to be low. Similarly, the majority also believed that there are many difficulties associated with the patenting process and that they receive limited support from their organisations, which lack the proper competences and structures to assist with patenting and licensing.

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Within the field of the organisation of science, concerns about how academics generate patents tend to focus on a single set of either national or international patents. The main aim of this research is to study both national and international patenting in order to understand their differences. We have approached this issue from both a historical and an economic perspective, using data from the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), the largest PRO in Spain. Three periods can be distinguished in the CSIC’s history, according to the political context, namely the dictatorship (1939–1975), the transition to democracy (1976–1986) and democracy (1987-to date). The prevailing legal and institutional framework has marked the way in which patenting by CSIC has evolved in each of these periods. The current situation is one in which there is strong internationalisation of patenting activity, and in this most-recent period we explore trends in some of the economic influences on patenting activity. We conclude that the political and normative context may shape the culture of international patenting at PROs like the CSIC and that increasing technological cooperation has supported this internationalisation. However, very often foreign partners are included in the application in order to extend protection abroad for commercial reasons, so their number may not be a good indicator of inventive activity.

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The aim of this study is to reveal the possible linkage among the 40 primary organizations in Genetic Engineering Research by taking the Patent Coupling approach. The primary organizations were defined by the productivity and identified by the patent count and Bradford Law. The author analyzed the cited patents of the patents granted by United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) from 1991 to 2002 to the 40 primary organizations (assignees) in Genetics Engineering Research to establish the correlation. 780 coupling pairs formed by the 40 primary organizations and Coupling Index and Coupling Strength were calculated for each pair and primary organization. Correlation Analysis and Multiple-Dimension Scaling were applied further based on Coupling Index. Technological clusters were found in the results of the analyses.

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societal factors, including policies, individuals, and organizations (Layne and Lee 2001 ; Khan et al. 2011 ). Recently, Korea's National Information Society Agency in Korea suggested a communication-oriented e-government system as a new paradigm to

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In this paper an attempt is made to construct a typology of research units according to a set of organizational features and relate the resulting classification to a set of performance measures. The organizational features include (i) resources and facilities for research; (ii) Communication and transfer of new ideas; (iii) Planning and organization of research; and (iv) Social psychological environment for research. The performance measure include (i) General R&D effectiveness, which essentially connotes the quality dimension of research performance; (ii) Recognition of the work of the research unit by the scientific community; (iii) User-oriented effectiveness; and (iv) Administrative effectiveness (budget and schedule compliance). This study is based on the subset of empirical data on 220 research units collected in India for the third round of the UNESCO International Comparative Study on the Organization and Performance of Research Units (ICSOPRU). Twenty three measures of organizational environment, operationalized by multiple indicators, were chosen as discriminant criteria for the construction of the typology, using a classification computer programme SYSTIT (Systeme' de Typologie Iterative). The relationship between typology groupings and performance measures was analyzed through multiple correspondence analysis. This study brings out that resources and facilities for research are a necessary but not a sufficient condition of performance. The sufficiency condition implies a positive work environment, effective communication within and outside the research group and a conceptually exciting research programme.

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Information on the organization and funding of medical research were obtained by a questionnaire from 10 member countries of the European Medical Research Councils. Responses show that the ratio of medical research expenditure to Gross Domestic Product varied from 0.1 to 0.2 per cent between these countries. In many countries, the largest single source of funds was pharmaceutical industry; its share of the total expenditure varied between one and 58 per cent. Excluding pharmaceutical industry, the contribution of Medical Research Councils (MRCs) varied from 2 to 22 per cent of the remaining expenditure. The present figures, derived directly from the national research organizations, were considerably higher than the respective OECD figures.A great deal of variation between the national MRCs in the distribution of funds by field of research, type of activity, and type of cost was observed. The average cost of a research project varied between 4800–97000 U.S. dollars. The variation is probably explained to a great extent by availability of other sources of funds.All MRCs used peer review in the assessment of research proposals. Criteria for peer review varied much. Only two MRCs mentioned specifically the needs of the society among the criteria. The various medical research organizations are described in detail in this report.

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Various data are collected for 15 member countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) that have to do with the practising of astronomy: (1) using the report of the Astronomy expert meeting of the Megascience Forum of the OECD, the level of astronomy funding, size of the research communities, relative commitment to ground-based versus space-based astronomy, etc.; (2) from other sources the size of the population, Gross National Product and size of the total research community; (3) from the paper ofSchubert et al. (1989) data on publication and citation scores of these countries in astronomy and the total research effort (excluding social and economic sciences). Using these data the 15 countries have been ranked on: (1) the relative level of astronomy funding; (2) the relative level of performance in astronomy; (3) the correspondence between funding and performance in astronomy; (4) the relative level of performance of the total science effort; and (5) the performance in astronomy relative to that in all sciences.The results of this study have been summarized in table 10 below. Other interesting results that can be inferred from the data collected in this paper are: (1) one out of every 75,000 inhabitants of these OECD countries is an astronomical researcher; (2) each citizen of these countries spends on average 2.5 $ per year on astronomical research (either from the ground or in space); (3) the average budget per researcher amounts to roughly 200,000 $ per annum; (4) the average budget for astronomy amounts to 0.016% of the Gross National Product and of order 1% of the total budget for civilian R & D; (5) an astronomical researcher from these countries produces on average 1.7 papers each year and these papers receive on average ten citations in the first five years; (6) researchers in science (excluding economic and social sciences) make up 0.08% of the population in these countries and one in about 65 of these researchers works in astronomy or astrophysics; (7) most countries spend about one-third of their astronomy budget on salaries, one-sixth on basic support and half on observing facilities (in a ratio one to two for ground-based versus space).

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Publication and citation indicators of groups are thought to enhance the quality and legitimacy of science policy decisions. While these indicators might be of value from a policy pont of view, the relation between these cumulative data and the local circumstances that influence the development of scientific knowledge has not been explored extensively. In this paper it is argued that publication and citation patterns related to research units are influenced by local circumstances. Toxicology is chosen as an example because it is directed at solving social problems and relates to local practices. In this paper, output indicatiors of Dutch toxicological research units are related to qualitative information on the strategies of these units. it can be shown that the variation in output and citation indicators can be explained in terms of local variations in context. Such variations in local organizational settings should caution against the application of scientometric studies to measure impact as an indicator of scientific quality.

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This paper will discuss the problems of measurement in the theory of organization. The development of methods of measuring is shown to be a condition for progress to this theory. The basic components of measurement are discussed. main shortcomings involved in the concepts of measurement of features of organization are presented. Their sources, and the consequences of their existence for solving organization problems, are demonstrated. Suggestion for elaborations regarding the elimination of drawbacks will be presented.

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