Authors:Nuria Sánchez-Sánchez and Adolfo C. Fernández Puente
This paper examines the paradox between high relative levels of job satisfaction and the characteristics of women's jobs compared to men's in Spain. Three hypothesis are considered: i) the existence of a selection bias when participating in the labour market; ii) of the presence of adaptive job satisfaction; and iii) the existence of differences related to preferences of different nature to strictly labour issues.
The study shows that, although having lower working conditions, women are more likely to be satisfied at work than men are. This paradox persists regardless of the inclusion of a great range of variables of different nature (objective and subjective), the age group and educational level under consideration. The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition suggests that women's preferences are actually influencing the differences in job satisfaction. However, it is not demonstrated that these differences disappear as age decreases or educational level increases. The probable existence of a “glass ceiling” that prevents women from having access to posts of greater responsibility and higher wages could cause that women who actually reach them are more satisfied than their male colleagues. As the labour market and society become more equal, this paradox might dilute.
The author summarises his intellectual and personal journey from rationality and morality to spirituality. As internationally renowned expert in operation research and multi-objective optimisation, he developed a strong interest in organisational ethics, social and ethical accounting, values-based leadership and corporate social responsibility. Influenced by Eastern (especially Indian) spirituality he went further to explore the well-spring of rationality, morality and spirituality. In this way he broadened the perspective of business ethics by the conception of spiritual-based leadership, which addresses existential questions such as “Who am I?” “What is a good life for me and for others?” and “How best can I serve?” in organisational and everyday contexts.
Authors:Agnieszka Słomka-Gołębiowska and Piotr Urbanek
approach to performance measurement should be in accord with both financial criteria as well as with non-financial factors, such as “skills acquired, personaldevelopment, compliance with the institution's systems and controls, commitment to the business
president Putin, but they want to remove irregularities and boundaries that stopped them from personaldevelopment and shadow the image of the society. Russia’s Millennials are busy with their lives. They do not mind autocracy if the system does not