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pharmaceutical industry – data, hypotheses, speculations) . Compete with the World Working Paper Series, No. 17. Corvinus University of Budapest. Antalóczy , K. ( 1999

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://ssrn.com/abstract=871395 Austvoll-Dahlgren, A. — Aaserud, M. — Vist, G. — Ramsay, C. — Oxman, A. D. — Sturm, H. — Kösters, J. P. — Vernby, A. (2008): Pharmaceutical Policies: Effects of Cap and Co-payment on Rational Drug Use. Cochrane Database

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Davidson, L. — Greblov, G. (2005): The Pharmaceutical industry in the Global Economy . Center for International Business Education and Research, Indiana University Kelley School of Business Bloomington

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Acta Oeconomica
Authors: Tamás Ágh, Katalin Gáspár, Balázs Nagy, Matthieu Lehmann, and Zoltán Kaló

. – Lambot , K. – Irs , A. – Steikunas , N. ( 2002 ): Baltic Guideline for Economic Evaluation of Pharmaceuticals (Pharmacoeconomic Analysis) . Latvian Medicines Pricing and Reimbursement Agency. http

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, the Hungarian Pharmaceutical Company, and Entrepreneurship in Hungary . In: Tönis , M. – Arnis , S. – Purg , D. (eds): Entrepreneurship in Central and Eastern Europe: Development through Internationalization . London : Routledge , pp. 159

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Acta Oeconomica
Authors: GheorghiŢa Dincă, Marius Sorin Dincă, and Maria LetiŢia Andronic

-private partnership in different industries, such as pharmaceutical or textiles, is a major signal for the internal and external factors operating in such markets. However, quite frequently, private sector entities are concerned with minimizing the costs and paying

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confirmed by the 2019 Fortune Global 500 , that lists 119 Chinese companies, including own local brand industries such as computers, telecommunications equipment, industrial equipment, textiles and vehicles, as well as technology and pharmaceutical

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. Emery , P. – Hawkins , T. ( 2015 ): Biosimilar Medicines in Rheumatology . http://www.pharmaceutical-journal.com/learning/learning-article/biosimilar-medicines-in-rheumatology/20200018. article, accessed 20 February 2016

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This article studies the determinants of pharmaceutical innovation diffusion among specialists. To this end, it investigates the infl uences of six categories of factors—social embeddedness, socio-demography, scientifi c orientation, prescribing patterns, practice characteristics, and patient panel composition—on the use of 11 new drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Hungary. The Cox proportional hazards model identifi es three determinants—social contagion (in the social embeddedness category) and prescribing portfolio and insulin prescribing ratio (in the prescribing pattern category). First, social contagion has a positive effect among geographically close colleagues—the higher the adoption ratio, the higher the likelihood of early adoption—but no infl uence among former classmates and scientifi c collaborators. Second, the wider the prescribing portfolio, the earlier the new drug uptake. Third, the lower the insulin prescribing ratio, the earlier the new drug uptake—physicians’ therapeutic convictions and patients’ socioeconomic statuses act as underlying infl uencers. However, this fi nding does not extend to opinion-leading physicians such as scientifi c leaders and hospital department and outpatient center managers. This article concludes by arguing that healthcare policy strategists and pharmaceutical companies may rely exclusively on practice location and prescription data to perfect interventions and optimize budgets.

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In Poland, the low level of health care financing from public funds is becoming increasingly voiced and accepted as an argument not only for increasing health insurance contributions, but also for extending the scope of private funding. The objective of this paper is to analyze the level and structure of out-of-pocket expenditure in Poland as well as health care consumer characteristics influencing payments for health care and willingness to pay. The analysis relies on two main sources of micro data: the household budget surveys of the Central Statistical Office of Poland and a representative survey carried out in Poland in 2010. The results indicate that in the structure of out-of-pocket expenditure, spending on pharmaceuticals dominates (up to 80% of total out-of-pocket expenditure on health). The out-of-pocket expenditure on services most often refers to paying for out-patient specialists’ services, rehabilitation services and dental care, often in the private sector. Out-of-pocket expenditures are highest among population groups with high health needs (elderly, disabled, chronically ill) but also among individuals with high income. Polish consumers do not object to co-payments for health services with good quality and quick access. Greater stated willingness to pay characterizes younger people, those with higher income and better health.

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