Authors:Ekhlas H. Karam, Noor S. Abdul-Jaleel, and Basma J. Salah
systems [ 1 ]. Higher order systems can be found in multifarious industries such as oil, cement, chemical, pharmaceutical, aircraft system, atomic nuclear plant, flexible robot manipulator [ 3 ], quadrotor with a variable degree of freedom (DOF) [ 4
and properties of nanobiohydrids based on the anions of biologically important
organic molecules and various layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are reviewed.
Emphasis has been laid on collecting works on the controlled delivery and
release of LDH-intercalated pharmaceutically important compounds as well as
chemicals used as herbicides.
Authors:P. Apáti, K. Szentmihályi, P. Vinkler, É. Szőke, and Á. Kéry
Solidago canadensis L., (Asteraceae) has been used in European phytotherapy as a urological and antiphlogistical remedy for centuries. The behaviour of dissolution of mineral elements into different tinctures and aqueous extracts obtained from Solidaginis herba was investigated in connection with their quercetin glycoside and organic acid amount. Commonly applied aqueous and alcoholic extracts were analysed for Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Pb, S, Ti, V and Zn content. The concentrations of the minerals examined were determined by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Determination of the flavonoids in solidaginis herba and extracts was carried out by a spectrophotometric method, as required by the German Pharmacopoea. For the study of the flavonoid composition of crude drug, the HPLC technique was applied. To determine the relative nutrient contribution of these pharmaceuticals to the diet, data obtained were combined with flavonoid content particulars, then a comparison with U.S Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) was made. For evaluation of the phytotherapeutic relevance, k/Na ratio was also calculated. It has been found that the pharmaceuticals examined are important sources of potassium, chromium, manganese, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and lower sources of iron and zinc, assuming a daily intake of 1-2 l aqueous extracts as recommended for urological diseases. Flavonoid content of the different Solidaginis herba extracts ranged from 62.4 mg l-1 to 305.2 mg l-1.
Late diffusion or selective diffusion through polymeric membranes has various applications in separation processes, environmental protection, pharmaceutics for drug delivery systems, etc. The aim of this work is to present the results of some ions diffusion through poly(vinyl alcohol) [PVA] hydrogel membranes, obtained by freeze-thaw technique. The diffusion of potentially toxic ions -Pb(II)- and of alkaline ions like Na+ and K+ is tested using conductometry, flame photometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. The membrane permitivitty is calculated for every ionic species and the opportunity is studied to use these membranes in environmental protection, for waste water purification. The modifications of the PVA structure have been made by mixing the PVA solution with some natural products (beta-cyclodextrine or chitosan) or by compounding PVA hydrogel with Cu2+.
Authors:A. Calvo, J. Morante, Sz. Plánder, and E. Székely
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used for fractionation of grape seed to be applied in natural products of the food, cosmetic, or pharmaceutical industry. A two-step process was developed, consisting of conventional alcoholic extraction followed by SFE with carbon dioxide. The effects of pressure and concentration of co-solvent (ethanol) at constant temperature and solvent to feed-ratio were evaluated. The antioxidant activity of extracts and raffinates was measured with the DPPH* free radical scavenging assay. It was observed that supercritical carbon dioxide can be used in the described process for fractionation of an alcoholic grape seed extract to obtain a product with noticeably high antioxidant activity and a second one with no antioxidant activity or pro-oxidant activity.