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Research and technical change in the pharmaceutical industry The Review of Economics and Statistics 47 2 182 – 190 . Graves , S. B

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whether triadic citations assist us to account for some of the biases that distort standard measures of forward citations, (ii) to further understand what drives citations in the pharmaceutical sector, and (iii) to gain new insights on the geography of

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Abstract  

This study is a count of the publications of a sample of the major pharmaceutical multinational companies. These firms have been divided into three geopolitical groups: Europe, the United States and Japan. Results obtained show that research activities in this industry have been subjected to some changes between 1965 and 1979. Among these changes is the growing importance of fundamental research, the erosion of the leadership of U.S.-based firms and the growing importance of overseas research.

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50 pharmaceutical patents granted to firms, residing in US, GB, DE and HU each, were surveyed and the average numbers of scientific as well as patent itemsReferenced by the inventors were calculated. The sum of impact factors of the journals referenced (Total Weighted Impact) was calculated by scientific fields. About 50–60 per cent of scientific information referred to in the patents was found to originate from Life Sciences journals. It was found that 10 per cent of the journals referenced contained 55 per cent of the papers.

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This study applies the artificial neural network technique to explore the influence of quantitative and qualitative patent indicators upon market value of the pharmaceutical companies in US. The results show that Herfindahl-Hirschman Index of patents influences negatively market value of the pharmaceutical companies in US, and their technological independence positively affects their market value. In addition, this study also finds out that patent citations of the American pharmaceutical companies have an inverse U-shaped effect upon their market value.

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Bio-pharmaceutical R&D is increasingly an international affair. Research articles published in the peer-reviewed international scientific and technical journals represent quantifiable research outputs of bio-pharmaceutical firms. Large-scale systemic measurements of worldwide trends and sectoral patterns within bio-pharmaceutical science can be gauged from these articles, where coauthored research papers are assumed to reflect research cooperation and associated knowledge flows and exchanges. We focus our attention on the largest science-based multinational enterprises (MNEs), those that produce relatively large quantities of research articles. The study deals with the worldwide output of research articles that are co-produced by corporate researchers during the years 1996–2001. We employ these publications to examine structural factors characterizing research cooperation networks within industry at the level of major geographical regions (North America, Europe, Pacific-Asia), with a breakdown by within-MNE and between-MNE network linkages. The descriptive statistics on publication output and results of network analyses of co-publication linkages not only indicate regional differences, with a central role for US companies in biopharmaceutical research, but also a variety of firm-specific research cooperation networks which enabled us to develop a tentative typology of MNEs in terms of their intra- and interorganizational patterns of research cooperation linkages.

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This research uses descriptive multivariate data-analytic techniques—in particular, multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis—to explore and visualize the structure of the pharmacy literature as refracted through the editorial policies of theInternational Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA) database. Specifically, the co-occurrence of the section headings/codes, used to exhaustively categorize publications in the IPA database, are clustered and mapped to evaluate the usefulness of two methods of section heading assignment. A secondary purpose of this research is to evaluate the use of descriptive multivariate data-analytic techniques and co-classification analysis to explore and depict the structure of an inherently heterogeneous and multidisciplinary professional literature, such as pharmacy.

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This study utilized artificial neural network (ANN) to explore the nonlinear influences of firm size, profitability, and employee productivity upon patent citations of the US pharmaceutical companies. The results showed that firm size, profitability, and employee productivity of the US pharmaceutical companies had the nonlinearly and monotonically positive influences upon their patent citations. Therefore, if US pharmaceutical companies want to enhance their innovation performance, they should pay attention on their firm size, profitability, and employee productivity.

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explores the influence of patent trait upon corporate growth in the American pharmaceutical industry. The sales of the American pharmaceutical industry increase from $280.6 billion in 2007 to $320 billion in 2010, and the compound annual growth rate (CAGR

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Introduction The pharmaceutical industry is heavily R&D intensive, with incumbents requiring ten to 15 years on average to develop new drug products from initial discovery to final FDA approval. The cost of a new drug

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