In the accounts of early twentieth-century modernism the ethnographic object and its ‘discovery’ by avant-garde artists has come to occupy a central role. But the African studies by the German author and critic Carl Einstein (1885–1940) and the Latvian artist Vladimir Markov (1877–1914) have regularly been demoted to the footnotes of primitivist appropriations. In the histories of non-Western cultures and the anthropology of art both have endured a place in obscurity. Described as ‘the first and most influential’ of the ‘champions of primitive art’, Einstein's Negerplastik has regained some recognition, whereas Markov's Iskusstvo Negrov remains the lesser known of the two books. Emerging at the same historical juncture both authors postulated the limits of Western artistic traditions by advocating the aesthetic autonomy of non-Western sculpture. By introducing a comparative reading, this paper argues that the image/text strategies of both studies orchestrated a poetics of alterity that was central to their respective theoretical agendas and indicative of the politically charged cultural exchanges within the early-twentieth-century avant-garde. In addition to their seemingly analogous motivations it is proposed that their ‘ethnographic turn’ was based, nevertheless, upon conflicting approaches that betray their individual philosophical and artistic affiliations.
The Voyages pittoresques et romantiques, published between 1820 and 1878, contain nearly 3,000 lithographic plates which present a variety of material relicts, mainly those of medieval art and architecture. Thus, they are a fundamental and exceptionally rich source for the history of both the visual representation and interpretation of the Middle Ages in Nineteenth-Century France. They allow exploring three central aspects of a genuine national historisation of the medieval patrimoine: The Voyages can exemplify how the archaic and medieval past has been deliberately revaluated as the origin of the modern nation in post-revolutionary France. They demonstrate the extent to which the material relicts of the past have been explored in the frame of a national historical narrative which itself was designed as a comprehensive histoire de la civilisation. Finally, and particularly, the Voyages provide us with an understanding of the media which served to perform and which at the same time represented this very conceptualisation of the historical material. Guided by important aesthetic principles of Romanticism like the Picturesque or the subjectivity of visual perception, images rose to the leading medium through which history was interpreted and imaginations of the Middle Ages were communicated.
The text deals with the work of Jana Želibská (1941 Olomouc) — flanêuse in the 1960s and the priestess of the Great Mother (Nature) in the 1970s. Želibská took a central position among male protagonists of neo-avant-garde in Slovakia. Her approach has been labeled ‘latent feminism’ because no real feminist platform existed during socialism in Slovakia. Želibská used the language of pop art and New Realism and their iconography mixed with the local folklore motifs in a quite different way. Pop art and New Realism entered the oeuvre of many artists simultaneously with experiments in conceptual art (Stano Filko, Peter Bartoš, Július Koller, Jana Želibská). After 1968, Želibská shifted the focus of her activities to land as an open structure outside of official supervision. Želibská made several statements regarding experiencing the magic of the present moment and experience with landscape through concepts and events that emphasized connection with nature. Photography helped her to work with continuity and causality in photo-sequences of situations and events. The path through ‘rooms of her own’ and other spatial concepts from the female labyrinth to the architecture of the temple in the 1960s, through changing open structures outdoors in her concept and land art in the 1970s, photography in 1980s, reached installation and video in the 1990s. Installations in the 1980s were built mainly on the artist’s experience with and in nature, or on the typical postmodernist contrast of the urban and natural. Puberty and virginity, which interested her in the land art events in 1970s, appeared again in her video art in a monumental demonstration of ‘girl power.’ In 1997 Želibská took the position behind the camera, shooting a naked male body without identity and face in the video installation Her View of Him. Thus she completed her shift from the ‘girl power’ of the 1960s and early 1970s agenda to fully articulated ‘woman power’.
Variety and revue shows played a significant role in popular culture during the first half of the 20th century. Serving as a typical genre of cosmopolitan urban entertainment, these productions consisted of international acts, where a ‘foreign’ act was mostly defined by music, visual appearances and performance style; thus, not exclusively by the actual origin of the performer. This paper aims to analyze the presence and influence of Hungarian (style) acts in Berlin in three different socio-political contexts: the Weimar Republic, the NS-Zeit, and the Nachkriegszeit until the Berlin Wall was erected. Three large venues, the Plaza, the Scala and the Wintergarten (ca. 3000 seats each) defined the urban live entertainment sphere from 1920 onwards. These venues held shows until 1944. After the Second World War, only one large hall was opened in the destroyed city, the Friedrichstadt-Palast (in the Soviet occupation zone), which became a representative venue for East-Berlin as well as the GDR. The fact that Hungarian (style) acts were present in Berlin shows without a break during the entire research period shows that it did not depend on governmental cultural policies. The Hungarian show constituted a complex phenomenon which generated interest in the audience, guaranteeing their regular appearance. This analysis is based on primary sources; namely, a photography and programs collection housed at the Stadtmuseum Berlin. Moreover, Hungarian and German professional journals were utilized in this research.
Authors:Alexandra Anders, Zoltán Czajlik, Marietta Csányi, Nándor Kalicz, Emese Gyöngyvér Nagy, Pál Raczky, and Judit Tárnoki
This paper presents the results of a research project, which was launched in 1999 by the Institute of Archaeological Sciences of the ELTE. Our main goal was to create a register of Hungarian tell settlements. First we collected all available information on tell settlements from the archaeological literature and various museum archives. Following this preliminary data filtering, fifty of the initial 161 Neolithic sites and 116 of the 224 Bronze Age sites were classified as genuine tells or tell-like settlements. After that we determined the accurate location and co-ordinates of the sites using aerial photography called for the construction of a GIS database. The destruction (by erosion, by flood, etc.) of the tell settlements can be monitored virtually from one day to the other. In addition to a precise site condition assessment, the project yielded fresh information about settlement layouts, such as the presence of enclosures. At some sites, aerial photography was followed by a magnetometer survey.
There is still much to be explored about the exact circumstances of the creation of Csontváry’s pictures and the painter’s working method. Research has either approached the oeuvre from the life path wrought with mythical elements, or wished to embed it in the context of 19th century painting tradition. From these angles, however, the consistently built visual logic of Csontváry’s pictures, their details governed by the inherent laws of the genre of painting are often overlooked.
The most adequate method of exploring Csontváry’s creative practice appears to be a thorough examination of the relation between the inspiring sight and the picture painted of it. I based this study on Csontváry’s landscapes painted between 1897 and 1905, first of all those painted in Trogir, Castellammare and Taormina. In the knowledge of these localities it can be established that the painter accurately followed the topographic sight and the conditions of light. At the same time, the comparison of the location and the painting has also revealed that the painter had pairs of pictures in mind in his intention to capture a sight systematically. Taking up a vantage point mostly in northsouth and one in east-west orientation, he created “panorama pictures” built of several elements. His paintings are similar to the 360° panoramas in photography. But while a rotating camera can take an infinite number of photos, the painter assembled the picture from two “shots”.
Conspicuously, the pairs of pictures depict different times of day: instead of momentary impressions and moods, Csontváry captured the path of the transmission of light and thereby the passing of time, an interval of time in the pairs of pictures. In his later compositions he was to apply these different light conditions in a single picture, framing as it were the daily path of the planet on the horizon. This practice is related to one of Csontváry’s key technical terms, the “Sun Path”.
By capturing the changing of light in one picture Csontváry wished to “perfect” the 19th century plein air technique. His “Sun Path” painting derives from a specific view of nature and the world, which was in polar opposition to the positivism of naturalism and the sensualism of impressionism. Proof of it is the pairs of pictures. They summarize all Csontváry’s observations of time and space, and their translation into the practice of painting.
The views conveyed by Csontváry’s paintings were often borrowed from contemporaneous picture postcards. Not only greeting cards but e.g. the rich moving picture and photo material of the programs of the Urania Hungarian Scientific Theatre inspired him. He treated the pictorial themes as visual tropes or conventions, but in the creative process he only used their fixed, symbolic form such as a typical cutting. When a theme was actually to be realized, he thought it indispensable to be on the site in person, to make sketches and paint on the spot. He did so to make the contents he found important in the symbol visible by his painting.
'Alberto Giacometti», Lettres nouvelles , septembre 1957; publié par Marc Barbezat à L’Arbalète, en 1958 puis en 1963, illustré cette fois de photographies d'Ernest Scheidegger.
8. Voir cat.expo. L'atelier d'Alberto Giacometti
w powojennej fotografii prasowej na przykładzie „Przekroju” (1945–1956) [(Un)Real Socialism. The Circus in Post-War Press Photography as Exemplified in “Przekrój”, 1945-1956] . In C homa -J usińska , Małgorzata – K ruszyński , Marcin – O