Ahlburg, D. A. (1996): Population and Poverty. In: Ahlburg, D.A — Kelley, A.C. — Oppenheim Mason, K. (eds): The Impact of Population Growth on Well-Being in Developing Countries . Berlin: Springer, 219
Authors:Liuba Murauskiene, Milena Pavlova, Marija Veniute, and Wim Groot
Patient payments have not been studied systematically in Lithuania. This limits the use of empirical evidence in policy making. More systematic and detailed evidence on the patient payments phenomena in Lithuania are needed to clarify who is seeking and paying for health care services, why, and how. This paper presents the main findings from a quantitative representative population survey on patient payments in Lithuania. The study results confirm the significant scope of the patient payment practices as well as the complexity of the issue. Overall attitudes towards informal cash payments are negative but there is a rather tolerant view on gifts-in-kind. In case of health problems, access to proper (good quality) treatment is crucial. When treatment is needed, Lithuanian patients are ready to pay irrespective of the legitimacy of the payments and despite of the significant financial burden that these payments may cause. Priorities for the quality of care and the protection of vulnerable groups against financial risks are important and should be addressed when discussing the design of patient payment policies in Lithuania. The lack of a transparent political and organizational arrangements and the failure to communicate properly with the general public are the main challenges for future policy.
Have we reached the point where more spending on health care and other forms of social protection is not producing better health as measured by reductions in population mortality? Drawing on two decades of research and mortality statistics (1995–2015) for 17 OECD countries, our analysis confirms and builds on the observed relationship between the returns and investments in health and social welfare spending. First, the results suggest that there is a differential effect of socioeconomic, lifestyle and demography variables on total and cause-specific mortality rates. Second, the basic premise of an association between health care expenditure and mortality rates is reinforced in models that take into account public-only health expenditure and its impact on older age groups. Third, a strong protective effect of government-sponsored welfare expenditure on infant mortality was observed. This effect is weaker on other causes of death and suggests that older individuals, in this sample of developed countries, may have reached a stage of the epidemiological transition in which health improvement is indifferent to government assistance and depends largely on behavioural change.
“underground economic activities”, that in those years were allowing some individuals to earn high incomes ( Tanzi 2010 : 71–73). Those private activities were making some Hungarian individuals enjoy higher standards of living than the average population, a
Authors:GheorghiŢa Dincă, Marius Sorin Dincă, and Maria LetiŢia Andronic
impact of education upon the level of health, they have included a measure expressing the number of years of schooling of the adult population. The results showed a connection between health spending and efficiency, especially in the states with lower
Authors:Annamária Dézsi-Benyovszki and Tünde Petra Szabó
This study focuses on the theory of planned behaviour in order to understand and to predict the entrepreneurial behaviour of Romanian early-stage entrepreneurs and intrapreneurs, identifying the main differences among them. We first present the individual level analysis of these new venture creators using the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) Adult Population Survey database of Romania from 2011 to 2014, followed by the estimation of logistic regressions in order to test the applicability of the theory of planned behaviour in predicting entrepreneurial behaviour. We aim to contribute to the understanding of differences in start-up activities by broadening the concept of start-up to include intrapreneurship as well. The findings of this study provide partial support of the theory of planned behaviour.
We test whether the discouraged worker or added worker effect prevails in the Polish labour market. The discouraged worker effect implies that the participation rate is procyclical with respect to the GDP and countercyclical with respect to the unemployment rate. The added worker effect yields contrary findings. We analyse the period 1994–2014 with quarterly data. We focus on the working age population, both males and females. We apply a range of methods to obtain robust results, some of which have never been employed to resolve this problem. They include ad hoc filtration, spectral analysis, unobserved component model, time-varying parameter model, and frequency domain regression. The results indicate that the added worker effect prevails in most of the business cycle frequencies. It is significant and varies over time. It is true for both males and females. It is considerably stronger in contractions than in expansions. In low business cycle frequencies, the discouraged worker effect prevails. Although the last case is rare, it proves the heterogeneity of labour force behaviour over the business cycle.
At the end of 2014, more than 23% of the foreign currency denominated mortgage portfolio in Hungary was overdue; about 20% was classified as non-performing and the tendency is worsening. In this paper, we propose a solution to effectively reduce the credit and systemic risk inherent to this portfolio – the proposed model can be applied to other mortgage portfolios in trouble as well. The main element of our proposal is income-contingent repayment complemented with effective incentives to motivate debtors to repay their debt. We demonstrate that the proposed scheme is attractive for both the debtors and the lenders; therefore, contrary to some recent policy measures, in this case there is no need for direct state intervention to force modifications to the existing legal contracts. In order to evaluate the possible effects, we simulated a realistic population of borrowers with different age, debt, loan-to-value, and income. Then we calculated the expected income paths, the repayments of the borrowers as well as the profit of the lenders on the basis of the non-performing FX mortgage portfolio. The results underpin that the proposed scheme creates significant value added and, most importantly, that it can effectively reduce the vulnerability of the entire economy to future shocks.