Dough mixing properties are important in determining wheat processing and end-use quality. The Reomixer is a mixograph type device which provides mixing curves, described in detail by a total of 17 parameters. We analyzed the Reomixer mixing parameters of 26 breeding lines grown in 2007, in four contrasting environments (with and without Nitrogen fertilization, under water stress or irrigated). Using these data, we attempted to condense the information by identifying the most suitable parameters for use in a breeding program. We used the following criteria: high reproducibility (minimum coefficient of variation among repetitions), high genotype influence (i.e. high heritability), larger amount of information about overall variation of the other mixing parameters and complementarity of information (low correlation with other selected parameters). Mixing parameters varied widely for all criteria and no one parameter was best for all of them. Based on average performance we selected: “initial slope”, “peak time”, “peak height”, “end width” and “breakdown”, as having better ranking for the first three criteria and being less correlated between themselves than other mixing parameters. The five selected parameters cover all phases of dough development and describe all basic rheological aspects of mixing properties.
Authors:J. Ahmadi, A. Pour-Aboughadareh, S. Fabriki-Ourang, and A. A. Mehrabi
Glutenin and gliadin subunits play a key role in flour processing quality by network formation in dough. Wild relatives of crops have served as a pool of genetic variation for decades. In this study, 180 accessions from 12 domesticated and wild relatives of wheat were characterized for the glutenin and gliadin genes with allele-specific molecular markers. A total of 24 alleles were detected for the Glu-A3 and Gli-2A loci, which out of 19 amplified products identified as new alleles. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 90 and 65% of the genetic diversity were partitioned within two Aegilops and Triticum genera and their species, respectively. Furthermore, all glutenin and gliadin analyzed loci were polymorphic, indicating large genetic diversity within and between the wild species. Our results revealed that allelic variation of Glu-3A and Gli-As.2 is linked to genomic constitutions so that, Ae. caudata (C genome), Ae. neglecta (UM genome), Ae. umbellulata (U genome) and T. urartu (Au genome) harbor wide variation in the studied subunits. Hence, these species can be used in wheat quality breeding programs.
The main criterion that determines the quality of durum wheat is the degree of suitability for pasta production (pasta-processing quality). In this regard, pigment content and the quantity of oxidative enzymes of durum wheat play important roles in the quality of pasta. It is now possible to examine these features and specify their effects using recently developed genetic markers and spectrophotometric measurement techniques. In the present study, LOX enzyme activity and pigment content are determined using molecular and biochemical scanning. According to the obtained results, Gediz-75, Gdem-12, Line-19, Zenit, Line-7 and Line-20 were determined as the most suitable lines or varieties for the production of quality pasta with regard to LOX enzyme activity. As for pigment content, Kyle, Zenit, Gdem-12, Gdem-2, TMB-1 and TMB-3 showed the highest potential for the production of yellow pasta. When pigment content and LOX enzyme activity were evaluated together, the potential of the Gediz-75, Gdem-12 and Zenit durum wheat varieties and lines to produce yellow pasta products was shown to be very high.
Authors:D. Horvat, N. Ðukić, D. Magdić, J. Mastilović, G. Šimić, A. Torbica, and D. Živančev
Glutenin polymers composed of HMW and LMW subunits are important contributors to the wheat end-use properties. Twenty-six winter wheat cultivars differing in bread processing quality were collected at the experimental fields of the Agricultural Institute Osijek, Croatia and Institute of the Field and Vegetable Crops Novi Sad, Serbia, in 2008/2009 season. The HMW glutenins composition and glutenin proteins content were determined by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC, respectively, with aim to determine the relationship between glutenin protein fractions and wheat quality properties. Significant differences were found between Croatian and Serbian cultivars in several quality attributes (GI, WA, DDT, DS and R/EXT) as well as in the content of total glutenins and LMW glutenins and GLI/GLU ratio. The dominant HMW subunits in analyzed cultivars were 2*, 7 + 9/7 + 8 and 5 + 10. Principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed the presence of association between HMW glutenins composition and GI, dough E, R and R/EXT, while the glutenins quantitative data showed pronounced relation with P, DDT, DS, E, R and R/EXT. GLI/GLU ratio had the opposite effect on these parameters.
Authors:A. Kandil, A. Attia, A. Sharief, and A. Leilh
, B., Sajjan, M. R. P., Srinivasa, V., Harshavardhan, M., Thippesha, D. (2008): Studies on the influence of bio-fertilizers with levels of NPK on the yield and processingqualities of onion ( Allium cepa L.) cv. Bellary Red in rabi season under