Hungarian statutes and regulations contain a "without prejudice to international treaty obligations" clause as to the scope of their provisions. In such cases the international treaty-or maybe an existing mutual practice in its absence-shall be enforced based on the express provision of the domestic act. This process might prove to be quite lengthy, since the Minister of Justice is authorized to pronounce on the existence of such mutual practices. In the second half of the 1990's the Hungarian legislative branch (the Parliament) passed a statute on taxation which entered into force even though it violated the bilateral treaties concluded by Hungary to avoid double taxation.
). During the Nanjing Nationalist Government, the Nationalist Party promulgated three constitutional documents, the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China (1931), the Draft Constitution of Republic of China (1936) and the Constitution of Republic
This article presents eighteen glosses and emendations borrowed from Turkic dialects into the Slavonic-Russian Pentateuch edited according to the Hebrew Masoretic Text (in manuscripts from the 15th–16th centuries). The first group of these words — including proper names — has Arabic or Persian origins; they came into East Slavonic with obvious Turkic mediation (Skandryja ‘Alexandria’, Bagadad ‘Baghdad’, Misurʹ ‘Egypt’, Šam ‘Damascus’, Isup ‘Joseph’, sturlabʹ ‘astrolabe’, soltan ‘sultan’, olmas ‘diamond’, ambar ‘ambergris’, and brynec ‘rice’). The second group is proper Turkic: saigak ‘saiga antelope’, ošak ‘donkey’, katyrʹ ‘mule’, kirpič ‘brick’, talmač ‘interpreter’, čalma ‘turban’, and saranča ‘locust’. The author agrees with the hypothesis that this glossing/emendation was made for the East Slavonic Judaizers. Furthermore, the author suggests that there was participation of a group of merchants interested in a new and mysterious knowledge promulgated by learned rabbis.
This article reconsiders how the ṣaḍvārgika monks, or monks in the band of six, are represented in Vinaya, the codified Buddhist law texts. Conventionally, these ṣaḍvārgika monks are portrayed as evil figures whose behaviours have subsequently become exemplary of monastic violations in Vinaya literature. In this article, I discover a neglected alternative discourse in which the ṣaḍvārgika monks are perceived as supporters of Buddhism who were well educated in various secular and religious subjects. Specifically, this study reveals that the authors of two Chinese texts Lüjie benshu 律戒本疏 (T2788) and Guan wuliangshou jing yishu 觀無量壽經義疏 (T1749) argued that the ṣaḍvārgika monks are noble figures who had purposefully acted out various misdeeds to facilitate the promulgation of the Buddhist monastic law, which only becomes necessary when the situation requires it.
Using the Russian experience in World War II as an illustration, this article explores some dynamics of collective memory,
especially when state authorities seek to employ a particular usable past. Posters, films, and other forms of popular culture
are analyzed in an attempt to account for a sudden switch in official Soviet memory during the early phases of World War II.
In this context the Soviet leadership reverted to relying on old Russian national narratives after spending years forcibly
promulgating an internationalist, anti-nationalist official story. Along with other post-Soviet experience, this suggests
that national narratives can be quite conservative and resistant to change. The notion of “schematic narrative templates”
is employed to provide insight into how this played out in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia in general, with specific attention
given to the “expulsion of foreign enemies” narrative template.
The Ionizing Radiation Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has implemented several quality
assurance programs to provide a consistent basis for environmental-level national and international ionizing radiation measurement
credibility and comparability. These programs cut across a variety of sectors that include: (1) personnel protection; (2)
survey-instrument calibration; (3) environmental radiochemistry and (4) radiobioassay. The four basic elements of the MQA
programs are: (1) conformance to promulgated consensus criteria; (2) documented inhouse quality assurance and control practice;
(3) periodic performance evaluations using appropriate testing materials and instruments; and (4) periodic on-site assessments
by technical experts. The periodic performance evaluations are important for the demonstration of measurement traceability
to the national and international physical standards. Traceability testing, however, must be augmented by the other elements
to provide the strongest rationale for measurement assurance. This paper will describe the NIST programs and future directions
for new programs.
The influence of the National Research Foundation's (NRF) rating system on the productivity of the South African social science researchers is investigated scientometrically for the period from 1981 to 2006. Their output performance is mainly indicated by their research publications. Following international best practice in scientometrics as well as the behavioural reinforcement theory, we employed the “before/after control impact (BACI) method”, as well as the well known econometric breakpoint test as proposed by Chow. We use as control group the publications in the field of clinical medicine. The field is not supported by NRF and hence clinical medicine researchers are not affected by the evaluation and rating system. The findings show a positive impact of the NRF programme on the research outputs of social sciences researchers and the implementation of the programme has increased the relevant population of research articles by an average of 24.5% (during the first 5 years) over the expected number of publication without the programme. The results confirm the scientometric findings of other studies (e.g. that of Nederhof) that ratings promulgate research productivity.
In this article I will point out to the role of music in the Day of Youth, the most important state holiday in the socialist Yugoslavia. I will show that in the afterwar period, the music for the jamboree was selected in order to highlight certain important events from the People’s Liberation Struggle, so that it consisted in the combination of traditional, partisan and folk songs, and it was regularly related to Tito himself. After Tito’s death in 1980, the Day of Youth was in crisis, together with the country, but despite that, the celebrations were organized almost until the very end of Yugoslavia. The celebrations after Tito were marked by a tendency to overcome the crisis of the ideology of “brotherhood and unity,” so that it was concluded that the Day of Youth should be modernized. I argue that the music played a crucial role in the process, leading to the promulgation of rock and roll as “our future,” i.e. the future of the young. The collectivities that were represented in the jamboree also changed in accordance with the music, so that those in the 1980s included casual rock and roll dancing instead of traditional round dances.
This article deals with Chapter V of Kitāb al-Ṭibb al-Rūḥānī of Abū Bakr al-Rāzī (Rhazes) which is concerned with ˓ishq (love) and entitled Fī al-˓Ishq wal-Ilf wa-Jumlat al-Kalām fī al-Ladhdha or “On Love and Intimacy and a Summary Account of Pleasure”. In this chapter, al-Rāzī propounds the idea that love is an unfortunate condition that leads to subservience and surrender, madness and enervation. Previous studies on Kitāb al-Ṭibb al-Rūḥānī show that al-Rāzī based his work on the maladies of the self on Plato, Galen and the tradition of Hedonism. In this article, however, I intend to explore al-Rāzī’s views on ˓ishq and aim to contextualise them within the framework of mediaeval Arabic love theory. I propose to show, moreover, that al-Rāzī’s psychology, or more specifically his argument over ˓ishq, is based not only on “a blend of materialistic and Platonic elements”, as Lenn Evan Goodman asserts, and on “lively debates typical of Hellenistic philosophy”, as Thérèse-Anne Druart claims, but his contemplation which derives from his perception of the vicissitudes of the society and his endeavours to demolish what he considers mistaken ideas of love which were promulgated by some works of mediaeval Arabic literature. By doing so, Chapter V could be considered an exemplar of a form of mediaeval applied ethics which “addresses the moral permissibility of specific actions and practices” as it occurred in the society.