Major findings are reported of a survey of scientists and engineers awarded an EC Training Fellowship between 1966 and 1988. 472 former fellows and 140 renoncés, i.e. declining the fellowship awarded, report about academic experiences in another EC country and administrative issues of the fellowship as well as subsequent careers. The article places special emphasis on the 12 percent of former fellows from less favoured regions of the European community. They turn out to regard the fellowship more favourably than fellows from advanced regions, but would prefer other options, if they could decide again.
This paper reports on a study of Reprint Requests (RRs). It is estimated that tens of millions of RRs are mailed each year, most being triggered byCurrent Contents. A sample of RRs generated by three papers, plus a questionnaire-survey of the requesters for one paper, form the basis of this study into language use patterns in the RR genre. English is ubiquitous, German and French infrequent, Russian and Spanish rare. This language data is significant because it provides unit-level language decision making (as opposed to that at other levels). Various applications of RR research are discussed, including its relevance to the issue of Third World Science.
Authors:Paula Moutinho, Margarida Fontes, and Manuel Godinho
This paper addresses scientists’ behaviour regarding the patenting of knowledge produced in universities and other public
sector research organisations (PSROs). Recent years have witnessed a rapid growth in patenting and licensing activities by
PSROs. We argue that the whole process depends to a certain extent on scientists’ willingness to disclose their inventions.
Given this assumption, we conduct research into individual behaviour in order to understand scientists’ views concerning the
patenting of their research results. Data from a questionnaire survey of Portuguese researchers from nine PSROs in life sciences
and biotechnology is presented and analysed and complemented with in-depth interviews. The results reveal that overall the
scientists surveyed show a low propensity to become involved in patenting and licensing activities, despite the fact that
the majority had no “ethical” objections to the disclosure of their inventions and the commercial exploitation of these. Perceptions
about the impacts of these activities on certain fundamental aspects of knowledge production and dissemination are however
divergent. This may account for the low participation levels. Furthermore, most scientists perceived the personal benefits
deriving from this type of activity to be low. Similarly, the majority also believed that there are many difficulties associated
with the patenting process and that they receive limited support from their organisations, which lack the proper competences
and structures to assist with patenting and licensing.
Authors:Ling-Chu Lee, Yi-Yang Lee, and Yi-Ching Liaw
Analysis and results
After the process of socio-economic need research, the analyses of international and technology development trend, a drafting of the vision, the questionnairesurvey, Delphi and bibliometric analysis, we verified the conditional
Authors:Chuanfu Chen, Yuan Yu, Qiong Tang, Kuei Chiu, Yan Rao, Xuan Huang, and Kai Sun
criterion will be compared with every other criterion in order to assess their relative priority. (3) Conducting a questionnairesurvey. The survey was divided into two sections: Part A collected demographic information. Part B collected respondents