. Therefore, the decolorization of dye effluents is attracting an attention. C.I. reactive red 198 (RR198), a dye that contains two of the most commonly used anchors—monochlorotriazine and vinyl sulfone groups—was adopted as the parent compound in this study
This paper is a continuation of the paper “Examination of Micro Grid Operation in Island Condition, Focusing on Voltage Control” . It has presented the assessment of micro grids’ voltage and reactive power control. The increasing integration of intelligent energy distribution networks has to serve the interest of the consumers. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the quality of the electricity supply with regard to the voltage quality as well. How is it possible to ensure the regulation in those cases, e.g. in case of island operation? In the paper the model developed and used for simulating the micro grids are introduced and it is also shown how to apply them for island operation assessment. With the help of a model network the results of the simulations are presented and the conclusions are evaluated.
Authors:Chung-Hsin Wu, P. K. Andy Hong, and Ming-Yan Jian
in wastewaters. Dyes are readily discernible at small quantities and adversely affect the water environment. Therefore, the removal of color from wastewater often takes priority over the treatment of other colorless organics. Reactive Red 2 (RR2), a
In the present study, UV and UV/S2O82− have been applied to decolorize and mineralize organic dye C. I. Reactive Red 45 (RR 45) in aqueous solution. The rate of
color removal was studied by measuring the absorbance at the characteristic wavelength while mineralization rates were obtained
on the basis of total organic carbon (TOC). A statistical study of the process was performed using an experimental design
method, particularly a response surface methodology (RSM) hexagonal design. Optimal operating conditions were established;
pH 5 to pH 7 and [K2S2O8] = 15 mM. A complete color removal was achieved in all studied combinations of process parameters, while almost complete
mineralization can be achieved at established optimal process conditions. According to the developed statistical model of
the process and performed kinetic study, experimental data were fitted into a model of homogeneous system.
Authors:Raquel Cristóvão, Priscilla Amaral, Ana Tavares, Maria Coelho, Magali Cammarota, José Loureiro, Rui Boaventura, Eugénia Macedo, and Fernando Pessoa
In this work, the laccase catalyzed degradation of reactive textile dyes was studied in supercritical carbon dioxide media.
A two level Box–Behnken factorial design with two factors and response surface methodology (RSM) were performed to investigate
and optimize the effects of pressure and temperature on reactive red 239 (RR239), reactive yellow 15 (RY15) and reactive black
5 (RB5) dye degradations by commercial laccase in supercritical carbon dioxide media. Mathematical models were developed for
each dye showing the effect of each factor and their interactions on color removal. Pressure and the interaction between temperature
and pressure were the main factors affecting the decolorization. The optimum conditions for RB5 and RY15 were found to be
high pressure values (>120 bar), whilst the temperature presented a minor effect on their degradation at these pressures.
For RR239, both variables influenced the decolorization and the optimum conditions appear to be at low values of pressure
and high values of temperature.
Constant stream of data has been generated and stored as more devices are being connected to the internet and supported with cloud technologies. The price drop of such applications along with industry 4.0 trending, triggered an explosive growth and demand for many IT modern solutions. From an industrial point of view, sensorization practices are spreading through factories and warehouses where software is constantly adapting to provide actionable insights in a data-driven configuration. The fourth industrial revolution is empowering the manufacturers with solutions for cost reduction, which translates in competitive advantage. The sector of maintenance operations is leading in engineering innovation, from reactive to planned preventive techniques the next step in history of proactive approaches is Predictive Analytics Maintenance.
This paper integrates a Real Power Differential Scheme (RPDS) for power transformer protection. The suggested RPDS for power transformer computes the active power loci during normal operation, switching, normal, and internal, involves turn to turn, and external faults at varied load angles. The proposed RPDS concept is based on monitoring and comparing the transformers primary and secondary active and reactive powers. The dynamic response of the proposed RPDS is tested 300 MVA, 220/66 kV, Y/Δ transformer. Furthermore, the suggested scheme is simulated with the use of Matlab/Simulink then tested for various fault and switching conditions. Moreover, the RPDS is checked for inter turn fault conditions at primary and secondary sides. The evaluation of the suggested scheme confirms the superiority of the proposed scheme to distinguish internal and external faults as well as magnetizing inrush currents with good selectivity, high speed, sensitivity, stability limits and high accuracy response of the power differential scheme. Finally, the suggested scheme is able to detect correctly the turn to turn faults for wide range of fault resistances but fails at very low values.
Authors:R.T. Mócsai, A. Maczó, C. Grünwald-Gruber, K. Majer-Baranyi, N. Adányi, P. Milotay, J. Czelecz, and R. Tömösközi-Farkas
, O.Y. , Weiss , J. , Wienkoop , S. , Lehmann , K. , Scheler , C. , Dölle , S. , Schwarz , D. , Franken , P. , George , E. , Worm , M. & Weckwerth , W. ( 2009 ). Evidence for novel tomato seed allergens: IgE-reactive legumin and
Authors:G. Lizia Thankam and Neelakantan Thurvas Renganathan
throughout the globe. Metakaolin inhibits a high equivalent quality of cement, and hence it is often referred to as High Reactivity Metakaolin (HRM). The non-reactive impurities in metakaolin are removed by water processing leaving the 100% reactive pozzolan