Kárpáti 2007 ; Török 2007 ), whereas sedimentary rocks in Hungary are mostly used as building or decorative stones ( Török et al. 2004 ; Török 2007 ). The favorable properties of andesite (high uniaxial compressive strength and resistance to abrasion
Authors:D. Lungu, A. Aldea, S. Demetriu, and I. Craifaleanu
Session A.1.2. 5th International Conference on Seismic Zonation, Nice, France, Proceedings Vol. 3, Ouest Editions, Preses Academiques, 2057--2082.
Eurocode 8 - Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures
prEN 1998--1 2003: Eurocode 8. Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance. Part 1: General rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings, Draft January 2003, LNEC Lisbon
prEN 1998--1 2003: Eurocode 8
The study area lies in south Egypt on the west bank of the River Nile about 12 km north to the Aswan City. The aim of the present study is a trial to investigate subsurface structure conditions, to determine the dynamic characteristics of the subsurface rocks and to study the effect of the near earthquake activities on the proposed location of Aswan New City. In this study nineteen seismic refraction P- and S-waves profiles were conducted. The output results include velocities of P-and S-wave and the thickness of each layer. The bulk density of soil layers was calculated from determined P-wave values. The measured shear wave velocity and bulk density for each layer were used to compute the maximum shear modulus. These parameters for each layer are used as input data to compute the responses of horizontally layered soil profiles subjected to bedrock input motion from strong earthquake using EERA program. The obtained response values of soil layers are represented by the surface acceleration, from which response spectra with damping ratio of 5 % are obtained, surface Fourier amplitude spectra, amplification ratio between rock outcrop and free surface, and the shear stresses and strains characteristics at the sublayer No. 2 in all selected profiles sites. The output of this study is very important for solving the problems, which associated with the construction of various civil engineering purposes and for earthquake resistance structure design.
On the basis upon n corresponding value-pairs (xi; yi), i = 1, …, n, the closeness of correspondence between the random variables x and h is customarily characterized by the classical correlation coefficient r (see Eq. (2) in the present paper), equally in the geosciences and in the everyday life. It is shown in the present paper the lack of the robustness of Eq. (2) (r has even no meaning for circa 40% of the types occurring in the geosciences), and the lack of the resistance (one single outlying value-pair can distort the r-value in an incredible degree). The modern correlation coeffcient rrob (see Eq. (9) in this paper) is completely resistant against outliers, and in the same time also robust: Eq. (9) is applicable even if x and h are of Cauchy type, very far lying from the Gaussian distribution and even from the most frequently occurring so-called statistical distribution (see Eq. 6). For the Cauchy distribution neither the scatter (variance) nor the expected value exist therefore for this distribution-type even the classical theoretical value (see Eq. 3) does not exist: the calculation of r according to Eq. (2) gives in this case an "estimation" of a not existing quantity. In the paper are presented the results of a time consuming series of Monte Carlo calculations made equally for the statistical and Gaussian distributions and for n = 10; 30 and 100; the errors characterized by the semi-interquartile and semi- intersextile ranges of the modern rrob (Eq. 9) were calculated and tabulated for rt = 0; 0.1; 0. 2; … 0. 7 and 0. 8. An approximate method is also given (see the simple Eqs 16 and 17) to determine that value of n which assures a prescribed accuracy of the modern rrob.