Authors:R. Rice, Christine Borgman, Diane Bednarski, and P. Hart
Citation analysis is a useful method for studying a wide range of topics in bibliometrics and the sociology of science. However, many challenges have been made to the validity and reliability of the underlying assumptions, the data, and the methods used in citation studies. This article addresses these issues in three parts. First is a brief review of validity and reliability issues in citation research. Next we explore measurement error in a principal source of journal-to-journal citation data, the Institute for Scientific Information'sJournal Citation Reports. Possible sources of measurement error include discrepancies between citing and cited data, changed or deleted journal titles, aberrant abbreviations, and listing algorithms. The last section is a detailed description of ways to overcome some of the measurement errors. The data and examples are drawn from a journal-to-journal citation study in the fields of Communication, Information Science, and Library Science.
Authors:Goio Etxebarria, Mikel Gomez-Uranga, and Jon Barrutia
(Rice University). In 1997, the first molecular nanotechnology company, Zyvex, was founded, and has recently patented new carbon nanotechnologies (BCC Research 2010 ).
CNTs are the raw materials with the greatest potential in the field of
Authors:Haneul Kim, Minghao Huang, Furong Jin, David Bodoff, Junghoon Moon, and Young Chan Choe
evolving more value-added products. Thus, although funding of traditional rice agriculture still constitutes a large fraction of the government investment in agriculture in the form of direct and indirect subsidies, government R&D expenditure is
classification as well. As for the patent assignees, we can see transition from academia to industry on the path. The earlier patents from 1997 to 2002 are mainly developed or co-developed by top universities such as Cornell University and Rice University. From
. Although browsing has different characterizations (Chang and Rice 1993 ), the present research focused on Bates ( 2002 ) browsing framework, in which Bates defines the purpose of browsing as finding and searching the core, and then declares her hypothesis